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whether it had been hauled down or shot

away: but, a white flag having been displayed over the stern, our fire was reserved. Two minutes had not more than elapsed before she again opened on us with the two guns ont he port side. This drew our tire again; and the Kearsarge was immediately steamed ahead and laid across her bows for raking. The white flag was still flying, and our fire was again reserved. Shortly after this, her boats were seen to be lowering, and an officer in one of them came alongside, and informed us that the ship had surrendered and was fast sinking. In twenty minutes from this time, the Alabama went down: her mainmast, which had been shot, breaking near the head as she sunk, and her bow rising high out of the water as her stern rapidly settled."

Lancaster-a virtual ally and swift witness for Semmes-who was close at hand, watching every motion with intense interest, in his log of the fight, dispatched to The Times that evening, when he arrived in his yacht at Cowes, with Semmes and such of his crew as he had snatched from the water and their captors-clearly refutes Semmes's charge. He says:

"At 12, a slight intermission was observed in the Alabama's firing; the Alabaina making head-sail, and shaping her course for the land, distant about nine miles.

"At 12:30, observed the Alabama to be disabled and in a sinking state. We immediately made toward her, and, in passing the Kearsarge, were requested to assist in saving the Alabama's crew.

"At 12:50, when within a distance of 200 yards, the Alabama sunk. We then lowered our two boats, and, with the assistance of the Alabama's whale-boat and dingy, succeeded in saving about 40 men, including Capt. Semmes and 13 officers. At 1 P. M., we steered for Southampton."

This hero, William Gowin, of Michigan, must not fade from his country's memory. Surgeon J. M. Browne reports that, being struck quite early in the action, by a fragment of shell, which badly shattered his leg near the kneejoint, Gowin refused assistance, concealed the extent of his injury, and dragged himself from the after pivot-gun to the fore-hatch. unwilling to take any one from his station. During the progress of the action, he comforted his suffering comrades by assuring them that "Victory is ours!" Whenever the guns' crews cheered at

The Alabama had 9 killed and 21 wounded, including Semmes himself, slightly. Two of the wounded were drowned before they could be rescued.

The Kearsarge had three men badly wounded, one of them mortally;" but neither would go below to be treated till the victory was won.

The triumph of the Kearsarge is doubtless in part due to the superior effectiveness of her two 11-inch guns, but in good part also to the cool deliberation and excellent aim of her gunners. As to her being iron-clad, this is Semmes's story:

"At the end of the engagement, it was discovered, by those of our officers who wounded, that her midship section on both went alongside the enemy's ship, with the sides was thoroughly iron-coated; this having been done with chain constructed for the purpose, placed perpendicularly from the rail to the water's edge, the whole covered over by a thin outer planking, which gave no indication of the armor beneath.

"This planking had been ripped off in every direction by our shot and shell, the chain broken and indented in many places, and forced partly into the ship's side. She was most effectually guarded, however, in this section, from penetration."

Now let us hear Capt. Winslow on this point:

"The Alabama had been five days in preparation. She had taken in 350 tons of coal, which brought her down in the water. The Kearsarge had only 120 tons in; but, as an offset to this, her sheet-chains were stowed outside, stopped up and down, as an additional preventive and protection to her more empty bunkers."

the successful effect of their shot, Gowin waved his hand over his head and joined in the shout. When brought at length to the Surgeon, ho appeared with a smile on his face, though suffering acutely from his injury. He said, "It is all right, and I am satisfied; for we are whipping the Alabama;" adding, "I willingly will lose my leg or life, if it is necessary" In the hospital, he was calmly resigned to his fate, repeating again and again his willingness to die, since his ship had won a glorious victory. His country owes a monument to William Gowin.

THE OUTER DEFENSES OF MOBILE BAY.

The London Daily News says:

"The Kearsarge is spoken of as being iron-clad; she was no more iron-clad than the Alabama might have been, had they

taken the precaution. She simply had a double row of chains hanging over her sides to protect her machinery. Two shots from the Alabama struck these chains, and fell harmlessly into the water."

Of the crew of the Alabama, 65 were picked up by the Kearsarge as prisoners; while Capt. Semmes and his officers and men who were picked up and carried off by Lancaster, with a few picked up by a French vessel in attendance, were also claimed as rightful prisoners of war; but they denied the justice of the claim, and were not surrendered.

649

Mobile-the double entrance to whose spacious bay was defended by Forts Morgan and Powell on either hand, and by Fort Gaines on Dauphine island, which separates Grant's pass from the main channel. Beside the heavy guns and large garrisons of these forts, there was a considerable fleet, commanded by Franklin Buchanan, sole Rebel Admiral, and formerly a captain in our Navy, whose iron-clad Tennessee, 209 feet long, 48 feet beam, with timber sides 8 feet thick, doubly plated with 2-inch iron, fitted with tower, beak and overhang, and mounting two 7-inch and four 6-inch rifled guns, throwing projectiles respectively of 110 and 95 pounds, propelled by two engines and four boilers, was probably as effective a craft for harbor defense as fleet ever yet encountered. Her three consorts were ordinary gunboats of no particular force; but when to these forts and vessels are added the vague terrors and real dangers of torpedoes, carefully constructed and planted in a channel where it is scarcely possible for attacking vessels to avoid them, it must be felt that the fleet, however strong, which defies and assails them, can only hope to succeed by the rarest exhibitions alike of skill and courage. Ten years had not elapsed since the immense naval power of Great Britain, wielded by a Napier, recoiled before the defenses of Cronstadt; while no attempt was made on the fortifications of Odessa.

The steady increase of our naval force, and our successful combined operations in Pamlico and Albemarle sounds; before Charleston, Savannah, and among the Sea Islands; up the mouths of the Mississippi; along the coasts of Florida; and at the mouth of the Rio Grande, had gradually closed up the harbors of the Confederacy, until, by the Spring of 1864, their blockade-runners were substantially restricted to a choice of two ports-Wilmington, N. C., and Mobile-where the character of the approaches and the formidable forts that still forbade access by our blockaders to the entrance of their respective harbors, still enabled skillfullypiloted steamers, carefully built in British yards expressly for this service, to steal in and out on moonless, clouded, or foggy nights; not without risk and occasional loss, but with The fleet which Rear-Admiral reasonable impunity. To close these Farragut led" to force its way into the eyes of the Rebellion was now the bay of Mobile was composed of 4 care of the Navy Department; and iron-clads and 14 wooden ships-ofit was resolved to commence with war or gunboats, as follows:

16 Aug. 5, 1864.

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FARRAGUT ASSAILS FORTS MORGAN AND GAINES. 651

Hartford (flag-ship), Capt. P. Drayton ;
Brooklyn, Capt. James Alden;
Metacomet, Lt.-Com'r J. E. Jouett;
Octorara, Lt.-Com'r C. H. Green;
Richmond, Capt. T. A. Jenkins;
Lackawanna, Capt. J. B. Marchand;
Monongahela, Com'r J. H. Strong;
Ossipee, Com'r W. E. Leroy;
Oneida, Com'r J. R. M. Mullany;
Port Royal, Lt.-Com'r B. Gherardi;
Seminole, Com'r E. Donaldson;
Kennebec, Lt.-Com'r W. P. McCann;
Itasca, Lt.-Com'r George Brown;
Galena, Lt.-Com'r C. H. Wells;
*Tecumseh, Com'r T. A. M. Craven;
*Manhattan, Com'r J. W. A. Nicholson;
* Winnebago, Com'r T. H. Stevens;
*Chickasaw, Lt.-Com'r T. II. Perkins.

* Iron-clads.

Gen. Canby had sent from New Orleans Gen. Gordon Granger, with a cöoperating land force, perhaps 5,000 strong, which had debarked on Dauphine island, but which could be of no service for the present; and did not attempt to be. Pollard says that our fleet carried 200 guns with 2,800

men.

der the guns of the fort-which, disregarding the iron-clads, were trained especially on the Hartford and her, while their progress was retarded by the slowness of the monitors-had just opened on the fort with grape, driving its gunners from its more exposed batteries, when the Tecumseh, then 300 yards ahead of her, struck a torpedo which, exploding directly under her turret, tore a chasm in her bottom, through which the water poured in a flood, sinking her almost instantly, and carrying down Com'r Craven and nearly all his officers and crew. Out of 130, but 17 were saved; part in one of her own boats and part by a boat sent, by Farragut's order, from the Metacomet, under a terrible fire.

Farragut had reluctantly consented to let the Brooklyn lead the wooden fleet, because of her four chaseThursday, August 4, had been guns specially adapted to the work fixed on for the perilous undertak-in hand, and because she had a peing; but, though the troops were on culiarly ingenious contrivance for hand, the Tecumseh had not arrived; picking up torpedoes. "Exposure is and-in contempt for the nautical one of the penalties of rank in the superstition touching Friday-the navy," is his characteristic observaattack was postponed to next morn- tion; in accordance with which, he ing; when, at 52 o'clock, the wood- had stationed himself in the Harten ships steamed up, lashed together ford's main-top, as the point whence in couples; the Brooklyn and Octo- every thing that transpired could rara leading, followed by the Hart- best be observed; and the strong preford and Metacomet; the iron-clads sumption that the Rebel fire would having already passed the bar, and be concentrated on the flag-ship rennow advancing in line on the right, dered him specially anxious that she or between the fleet and Fort Mor- should be accorded the post of pregan. The Tecumseh, leading, at 6:47, eminent peril and honor. Overruled opened fire on Fort Morgan, still a at the outset, Farragut, when the mile distant, which responded at Brooklyn very naturally recoiled at 7:06; and forthwith, every gun that the spectacle of the Tecumseh's decould be brought to bear on either struction, directed Drayton to go side awoke the echoes of the startled ahead, followed by the rest, in the bay. full belief that several must pay the The Brooklyn, when directly un- penalty of heroism just exacted of

does were encountered; while the fire of the fort, now checked by the grape of our ships, became comparatively harmless, from the moment that he had fairly passed its front.

the Tecumseh. But no more torpe- | broadside of solid 11-inch shot, which seemed to have much the same effect on her that a musket-wad or pop-gun pellet might be expected to produce on a buffalo's skull. Not satisfied with this, Capt. Jenkins drew off and came at her again, with the net result of losing his own beak and cut-water.

The Rebel fleet had opened fire directly after the fort; and the Tennessee, at 7:50, rushed at the Hartford, which simply returned her fire and kept on. The three Rebel gunboats, still ahead, poured their shots into the Hartford; the Selma getting a raking fire on her, which she could not return. Farragut, therefore, at 8:02, ordered the Metacomet to cast off and close with the Selma; which she captured, after an hour's fight: the Selma's captain, P. N. Murphy, with 9 others, being wounded; her Lieut. Comstock, with 5 more, being killed. She had 4 great pivot guns and 94 men. The Morgan and Gaines now took refuge under the guns of the fort; where the Gaines, badly crippled, was run ashore and burned. The Morgan escaped, and ran up to Mobile under cover of the ensuing night.

Farragut now supposed the fight over, and had ordered most of his vessels to anchor; but he was undeceived when the Tennessee, at 8:45, stood bravely down the bay, and, trusting to her invulnerability to shot, made for our flag-ship, resolved to run her down. At once, our ironclads and stronger wooden ships were signaled to close in upon and destroy her; our fire, save of the very largest guns, seeming scarcely to annoy her.

The Monongahela gave her the first blow; rushing at her at full speed, striking her square in the side, and, swinging around, pouring into her, when but a few feet distant, a

The Lackawanna next struck the Rebel monster at full speed; crushing in her own stem to the plank-ends, but only giving the ram a heavy list, without doing her any perceptible harm.

The Hartford came on next; but her blow was evaded by an adroit motion of the Tennessee's helm, so that the Hartford merely hit her on the quarter and rasped along her side: pouring in a broadside of 10-inch shot, at a distance of ten feet.

Our monitors had now crawled up, firing when they could do so; and the Chickasaw ran under her stern; while the Manhattan, also coming up behind her, gave her a solid 15-inch bolt, which struck her on her port quarter, carrying away her steering-gear, and breaking square through her iron plates and their wooden backing, but doing no harm inside.

Farragut had ordered Drayton to strike her a second blow; and he was proceeding to do so, when the Lackawanna, already badly crippled, in attempting to ram the enemy a second time, came in collision with the flag-ship, doing her considerable injury. Both drew off, took distance for another pass at her, and were coming on at full speed, when the Rebel alligator, sore beset from every side--her smoke-stack shot away, her steering-chains gone, several of her port-shutters so jammed by our shot

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