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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; Th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. CASH-MERE/* or KASHMIRE, an extensive valley in the southern part of Asia, surrounded by bigh mountains of the Himalaya range, between 33° 20' and 35° 40 N. Lat., and 74° 30' and 77° E. Lon. This country is remarkably well watered and productive. As it is 6,000 or 7,000 feet above the level of the sea, the climate is cool for the latitude. Cashmere was not long since in the possession of the Afghans, but more recently formed a part of the extensive dominions of Runjeet Sing, the sovereign of the Seiks. (See LAHORE.) The chief t. is Sirinagur.Adj. and Lohab. Cash-ME'-RI-AN.

Casl-Pl-AN SEA (the Kaorla Oanaosa of the Greeks), a large inland rea, situated on the boundary between Europe and Asia, extending from 47° 20' to 36° 40' N. Lat., and from 54° 10' to 46° 50' E. Lon. Its length, following the curve of the sea, is about 900 m.; its average breadth about 210 m. The waters of this sea are much less salt than those of the Atlantic. Gmelin estimates, the proportion as 1 to 4. Though it receives the waters of the Volga and several other rivers of considerable magnitude, the Caspian has no outlet. The surface of this sea is stated to be more than 300 ft. below that of the ocean.

Cass, a co. in the N. W. part of Ga., intersected by the Etowah r. Pop. 9,390. Co. t. Cassville.

Cass, a co. in the S. W. part of Mich., bordering on Ind. Pop. 5,710. Co. t Cassopolis.

Cass, a co. in the N. central part of Ind., intersected by the Wabash and Erie Canal. Pop. 5,480. Co. t. Logansport.

Cass, a co. in the W. central part of Ill., bordering on the Illinois r. Pop. 2,981. Co. t. Beardstown.

CASİ-SEL, a t. of Germany, the cap. of the electorate of Hesse-Cassel, on the Fulda, about 108 m. N. E. of Coblentz. It has numerous institutions for the promotion of the arts and sciences, among which we may wention the Museum, one of the finest buildings in the place, the Observatory, the Academy of Antiquities, the Academy of Painting, Sculptare, and Architecture, and the Lyceum. Lat. 51° 18' N., Lon. 9° 30' E Pop. above 26,000. (B.)

CASTELNAUDARY, kås -t1-no-då-rel, a t. of France, in the dep. of Aude. Lat. about 43° 19' N., Lon. 1° 53' E. Pop. in 1832, 8,471. (P. C.)

CASTEL VETRANO, cảs-tell vå-trål-no, a t. of Sicily, remarkable for its

• In familiar discourse, we very often hear this name accentuated on the first syllable ; e.g. in the phrase, “a Cashmere shawl." Cashmere, in such cases, may be considered simply as an English word, having become thoroughly angli. Cized. (See Int. XII., Obs. 2.) When, however, the country itself is spoken of, the almost invariable practice of the best speakers, as well as the usage of the poets, will, we believe, be found to justify the pronunciation above given.

« Who has not heard of the Vale of CASHMERE,

With its roses the brightest that earth ever gave ?
Its temples, and grottos, and fountains as clear
As the love-lighted eyes that hang over their wave ?"

MOORE's Lalla Rookh.

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mé, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; õő as in good. manufactures of coral, and for the ruins of the ancient Selinus found in its vicinity. Lat. 37° 40' N., Lon. 12° 46' E. Pop. about 13,000. (B.)

CASTIGLIONE, căs-teel-yol-na, a t. of Austrian Italy, about 20 m. N.W. of Mantua. Pop. above 5,000. (B.)

CASTILE, kas-ieel', (Sp. Castilla, kås-teell-yå,) an ancient kingdom of Spain, which has been divided into Old Castile (Castilla la Vieja, lå ve-d-hå), and New Castile (Castilla la Nueva, -nwàl-vå). Old Castile borders on the Bay of Biscay, and extends in a south-westerly direction about 250 m. Its greatest breadth is about 110 m. Burgos is the capital. New Castile is S. of, and borders on the above; it is about 200 m. from N. to. S., and 230 m. from E. to W. Capital, Madrid.-Adj. and inhab. CASTILIAN, kas-till-yun.

CASTINE, kas-teen', a port of entry of Me., in Hancock co.. on the E. side of Penobscot Bay, with an excellent harbour. Lat. 44° 22' 30'' N., Lon. 68° 45' W. Pop. of the township, 1,188.

CASTLEBAR, kas'-sel-bari, a t. of Ireland, the cap. of Mayo co., 128 m. W. N. W. from Dublin. Pop. in 1830, 6,373. (P. C.)

CASTLETON, kas-sel-ton, a village of Rutland co., Vť., the seat of the Vermont Academy of Medicine, founded in 1818. Pop. of the township, 1,769.

CASTRES, kástr, the largest and most important town, though not the capital, of the French dep. of Tarn. Lat. 43° 37' N., Lon. 2° 15' E. Pop. 16,000. (B.)

CASTRO GIOVANNI, kás-tro jo-vånl-ne, (Anc. En'na,) a t. of Sicily, nearly in the centre of the i., remarkable for its situation on the summit of an almost inaccessible mountain, more than 4,000 ft. above the sea. Enna was celebrated, in ancient times, as the birth-place of Ceres, and the site of her most sacred temple. Lat. 37° 31' N., Lon. 14° 18' E. Pop. 11,000. (B.)

CASWEEN. See CasBIN.

CasI-WELL, a co. in the N. part of N. C., bordering on Va. Pop. 14,693. Co. t. Yanceyville.

CAT-A'-HOO-LẠ or CATAHOULA, a parish in the N. E. part of La., intersected by the r. Washita. Pop. 4,955.* Co. t. Harrisonburg.

CAT-A-LO-NI-A, (Sp. Cataluña, kåt-8-loon-yå,) a prov. occupying the E. extremity of Spain, bordering on France and the Mediterranean. It is about 190 m. in length, and 126 m. in breadth, Capital, Barcelona.-Adj. and inhab. Carl-A-LẠN and CAT-ALOI-NI-AN.

CATANIA, kå-tål-ne-8 or ka-td-ne-a, (Gr. Karavn, Lat. Catana,) the cap. of a prov. of the same name, and the handsomest t. in Sicily, is situated on the sea-coast, S. of Mount Etna, near its base. Here may be seen the remains of an ancient amphitheatre, the largest of which we have any knowledge. It has a circumference greater, by nearly one-third, than the famous Coliseum of Rome. (B.) Catania has a university and several other public institutions. Lat. 37° 29' N., Lon, 15° 5' E. Pop. about 40,000. (B.)- Adj. and inhab. CA-TAI-NI-AN. | CATANZARO ka-tin-za-ro, a te of Naples, in Calabria Ultra. Lat 38° 57' N., Lon. 16° 31' E. Pop. estimated at 11,000. (B.)

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. Cat'-TA-RAU-GUs, a co. in the S. W. part of N. Y., bordering on Pa. Pop. 28,875. Co. t. Ellicottsville.

CA-TAWI-BA, a r. which rises in N. C., and flowing into S. C,, takes the name of Wateree, and joins the Congaree to form the Santee.

CATAWBA, a co. in the W. part of N. C., on the above river.
CATHAY. See China.

CAT-MAN-Doo or KATMANDOO, the cap. of the kingdom of Nepaul, in Northern Hindostan. It stands at an elevation of 4,784 ft. above the level of the sea. Lat. 27° 42' N., Lon. about 85° E. Pop. estimated at 20,000. (P. C.)

CATS/-KILL, the cap. of Green co., N. Y., situated on the W. side of the Hudson, 34 m. below Albany, on a creek of the same name. Pop. of the township, 5,339. The inhabitants of the village of Catskill may perhaps amount to half this number.

CATSKILL MOUNTAINS, a branch of the great chain of the Alleghanies, situated in the E. part of N. Y., W. of the Hudson. The highest summit, Round Top, is about 3,800 ft. above the level of the sea.

Cat'-TE-GAT or KATTEGAT, a large gulf which separates Denmark from Sweden on the north. This name is of Dutch origin, and signi. fies “ cat's hole."

Caul-cẠS-US, (Gr. Kavxaco5,) an extensive mountain system, between the Black and Caspian Seas. The general direction of the range is from W. N. W. to S. S. E. The highest summit, Elbrooz, is 2,800 toises, or about 17,908 English ft. above the level of the sea.-Adj. CAUCASIAN, kau-kal-she-an or kau-kal-shun.

CAUBUL. See CABOOL.

Cava, ka-vå, a t. of Naples, 5 m. N. W. of Salerno. Pop. estimated at 19,000. (B.) Near it is the celebrated Benedictine Convent of La Trinità, with a fine library.

Carl-an, an inland co. of Ireland, in the prov. of Ulster. Pop. in 1831, 228,040. (P. C.)

CAVERY, sometimes written, and always to be pronounced Caul-VER-Y, a r. in the S. of Hindostan, which rises among the Western Ghauts, and, flowing S. easterly, empties itself into the Bay of Bengal, by several mouths, near Tranquebar. Its whole course is about 450 m.

CAX-A-MARI-ca, kảH-hå-marl-kå, a t. of Peru, at the height of 9,363 ft. above the level of the sea. Lat. about 7° 9' S., Lon. 78° 35' W. Pop. estimated at 7,000. (B.)

Caxias or CACHIAS, kå-sheel-ås, a t. of Brazil, in Maranham. Lat. 4° 52 S., Lon. 43° 25' W.

CAXOEIRA or CACHOEIRA, kå-sho-de-rå, a t. of Brazil, 60 m. N. W. of Bahia, with a flourishing inland trade. Pop. estimated at 16,000. (B.)

CAYENNE, ki-enn', an island, river, and town of S. America, in French Guiana. The town is situated on the i., in Lat. 4° 56' N., Lon. 52° 15' W. Pop. about 2,000. (P. C.)

Cay-ul-GẠ, a co. in the western part of N. Y., bordering on the Cay. uga Lake and L. Ontario. Pop. 50,338. Co. t. Auburn. CAYUGA LAKE, situated in the W. central part of N. Y., is about 38 m. Fate, får, fäll, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pin; nd, nðt; oo as in good; long, and from 1 to 4 broad. Near its N. extremity it is crossed by a bridge, more than a mile in length. In the summer season, steamboats ply constantly between this bridge and the town of Ithaca, at the S. end of the lake.

CAZ-EN-O-V1-A, a village of Madison co., N. Y., 40 m. W. of Utica. Pop. of the township, 4,153.

Čecil, sis/-sil, a co forming the N. E. extremity of Md. Pop. 17,232. Co. t. Elkton.

Cel-DẠr, a co. in the E. part of Iowa, intersected by Red Cedar r. Pop. 1,253.

CEFALU, chef-4-lool, a seaport t. of Sicily, on the N. coast. Lat. 38° N., Lon. 14° 5' E. Pop. about 9,000. (B.)

CEL-E-BES, a large i., of singular shape, in the eastern seas, between 2° N., and 6° S. Lat., and 1190 and 125° E. Lon. Its extreme length, from N. to S., is near 500 m. Celebes is divided into a number of small independent states. The inhabitants are included in the great Malay race, though the different nations exhibit great diversity in character and language. The Bugis (bool-ghees) are the most numerous and powerful in the i., and are the most commercial people in all Oceanica. They have the character of being very fair dealers, and are said to possess a high degree of enterprise and intelligence. The Dutch have an extensive establishment, which they call the government of Macassar, on the S. W. coast of Celebes; and their influence extends to a great part of the island.

CELLE or Zelle, tsell-leh, a t. of Germany, in Hanover, situated near the Aller. Lat. 52° 37' N., Lon. 10° 3' E. Pop. 10,000. (B.)

CENTRAL AMERICA comprehends the countries which, under the dominion of Spain, were known by the name of the kingdom of Guatemala. It forms the central portion of the long isthmus which unites N. and S. America, and extends from about 8° to 17° 30' N. Lat., and from 82° to 94° W. Lon. Its length is estimated at 1,000 m.; its breadth varies from 100 to 300 m. Area estimated at 185,000 sq. m. Pop. 1,650,000. (B.) It is bounded on the N. by the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Chiapa, and Yucatan, and by the Caribbean Sea, E. by this sea and the territory of New Granada, and S. and S. W. by the Pacific Ocean. Exclusive of British Honduras, Central America forms a republic, divided into six sections, as follows:

The Federal District, . .. Capital, New Guatemala.
The state of Guatemala, ..

Old Guatemala.
" " Salvador, . . " San Salvador.
“ “ Honduras, ... " Comayagua.

Leon. " " “ Costa Rica, . .

The capital of the Federal District is also the seat of the general government.

CENTRE, a co. occupying the central part of Pa. Pop. 20,492. Co. t. Bellefonte.

CEPH-A-L0'-NI-4 (It. pron. chéf-d-lon/-e-, Mod. Gr. Kepanovía, kef-d

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“ Nicaragua, ··

San Jose de Costa Rica.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng.

lo-neel-å, Anc. Gr. Keparanvia, Lat. Cephalle'nia), the largest of the Ionian Islands, situated near the W.coast of Greece, between 38° 4' and 38° 29' N. Lat., and 20° 20' and 20° 47' E. Lon. Length, from N.N.W. to S. S. E., 31 m. Area about 348 sq. m. Pop. in 1833, 56,447. (P. C.) -Adj. and inhab. CEPH-A-LO-NI-AN.

CE-RAM (Port. pron. så-roung) or SER-ANG', after Gilolo, the largest of the Molucca Islands, situated between 2° 50' and 4° S. Lat., and 127° 50% and 131° 10' E. Lon. Its length is 185 m.; its average breadth about 30 m.

CERIGO, chérl-e-go, (the ancient Cythera ; Gr. Kvonpa,) one of the Ionian Islands, lying S. of the Morea, 25 m. E. of Cape Matapan. Length about 20 m. ; greatest breadth about 10 m.

CERVERA, SÉR-val-ră, a t. of Spain, in Catalonia, 38 m. N. by E. of Tarragona, with a university. Pop. 6,000. (M.)

CERVIA, chêr/-ve-å, a t. of Italy, in the Papal State, on the Adriatic, about 12 m. S. E. of Ravenna. Pop. estimated at 4,000. (B.)

CESENA, chå-så-på, a t. of Italy, in the Papal State, 34 m. N. N. W. of Urbino. Pop. estimated at 12,000. (B.)

CÉVENNES, sd-venn', (Anc. Ceven'na or Ceben'na,) a chain of mountains in the S. of France, in the deps. of Lozère, Gard, Upper Loire, and Ardèche.

Ceylon, sil-onel or seel-lon, (called by the natives Sin-ghål-là; by the Portuguese CEILÃO, sdë-loung', of which the English name Ceylon is a corruption: Anc. Taprobăne,) a large island on the coast of Hindostan, belonging to Great Britain, between 5° 54' and 9° 50' N. Lat., and 79° 50' and 82° E. Lon. It is separated, on the N. W., from the continent of India by the Gulf of Manaar. Its length is about 270 m.; its greatest breadth 145 m. Area 24,664 sq. m. The vegetable and animal productions of Ceylon, for the most part, resemble those of the neighbouring continent. This island contains numerous useful minerals and valuable gems. Iron is generally diffused. Plumbago abounds, and is exported in considerable quantities. The inhabitants of Ceylon are composed of the Singhalese, the original possessors of the island, the Malabars, who came as invaders from the opposite coast, the Mahometans or Moors, and a small proportion of Europeans and other foreigners. The pop., according to the census of 1833, was 1,126.808. (P. C.) Colombo is the capital.-Adj. and inhab. Sin'. GBA-LESE or CINGALESE, and CEYLONESE, si] -o-nezel. The former is Inore properly applied to the primitive inhabitants, and to that portion of the island which is at present occupied by them; the latter to the inhabitants and the island, in general.

CHÂLONS-SUR-MARNE, shâ'-ION' sür marn, (Anc. Catalau/ni and Duo Tocatalau'ni,) a t. of France; cap. of the dep. of Marne, on the river Marne, about 90 m. E. of Paris. Lat. 48° 57' N., Lon. 4° 22' E. Pop. 12,930. (B.)

CHÂLONS-SUR-SAÔNE, shâ'-ION' SÜR sône, a t. of France, in the dep. of Saône and Loire, on the Saône, at the termination of the Central Canal (canal du Centre). It is the most commercial and populous

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