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for seamen and strangers, in their passage to, the metropolis. Here every outward-bound vessel must come to anchor, to be examined and obtain its clearance; in like manner, every vessel coming up the river must be examined by the custom-house officers, a number of whom are constantly stationed here. Pop. 6,414.

GRAY-SON, a co. in the S. W. part of Va., intersected by New River, and bordering on North Carolina. Pop. 9,087. Seat of justice, Grayson c. h.

GRAYSON, a co. in the W. central part of Ky., a little N. of Green River. Pop. 4,461. Co. t. Litchfield.

GREAT BRITI-AIN, (Anc. Allbion, afterwards Britan/nia or Britannia Major-major, i.e. "greater," being added, in order to distinguish it from Brittany, which was also sometimes called Britannia or Britannia Minor, i.e. “ Lesser Britain,") the largest island of Europe, containing the countries of England, Wales, and Scotland. Lizard Point, the most southern part, is in Lat. 49° 57' 30" N; Dunnet Head, in Caithness, the most northern point, in Lat, 58° 41' N. The most eastern point is Lowestoft, on the coast of Norfolk, 1° 46' E. Lon. The most western, Airdnamurchan Point, in the N. part of Argyleshire, Scotland, is in 6° 13' W. Lon. The distance from Lizard Point to Dunnet Head, is about 608 m. The greatest breadth of the island, from Land's-end to the most eastern part of Kent, is about 311 m. Area 83,827 sq. m. The pop., according to the census of 1841, amounts to 18,720,394. Great Britain contains, in all, 84 counties, of wbich 40 belong to England,* 12 to Wales, f and 32 to Scotland. I Great Britain and Ireland form together what is termed the United Kingdom, of which London is the capital. The government is a limited hereditary monarchy. The legislative power is vested in the parliament, consisting of the king, the house of lords, and the house of commons. The king is regarded as the fountain of justice and the supreme head of the church. He is the commander-in-chief of all the forces of the empire, both on land and sea. To him belongs the exclusive prerogative of granting pardons and of commuting punishments. The house of lords consists of the temporal peers of England, who are hereditary, the elective peers of Scotland and Ireland, the bishops of England, and four Irish lords

* Bedford, Berks, Bucks (or Buckinghamshire), Cambridge, Chester (or Che. shire), Cornwall, Cumberland, Derby, Devon. Dorset, Durham, Essex, Gloucester, Hereford, Hertford, Huntingdon, Kent, Lancaster (or Lancashire), Leicester, Lancoln, Middlesex. Monmouth, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland, Not. tingham, Oxford, Rutland, Salop (or Shropshire), 'Somerset, Southampton (or Hampshire), Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Sussex, Warwick, Westmoreland, Wilts, Worcester, York.

Anglesey, Brecon (or Brecknockshire), Cardigan, Caermarthen, Caernarvon, Denbigh, Flint, Glamorgan, Mcrioneth, Montgomery, Pembroke, Radnor.

1 Aberdeen, Argyle (or Argyll), Ayr, Banff. Berwick. Bute. Caithness, Clack. mannan, Dumbarton, Dumfries, Edinburgh, Elgin (or Moray). Fife, Forfar, Had. dington. lo verness, Kincardine. Kinross, Kirkcudbright. Lanark. Linlithgow, Nairn. Orkney and Shetland, Peebles. Perih, Renfrew, Ross and Cromarty, Roxburgh, Sekirk, Stirling, Suthland, Wigłown.

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mé, mét; pine or pine, pin; no, not; oo, as in good, spiritual. The house of lords is also the supreme court of appeal for Great Britain and Ireland. The house of commons consists of men elected by the different counties, cities, boroughs, and universities, to represent them in parliament. It is required by law that the candi. dates be possessed of a certain amount of property, excepting the sons of peers, and those who are to represent the universities. The number of members of the house of cominons, at present, amounts to 658, of whom 471 are chosen by England, 29 by Wales, 53 by Scotland, and 105 by Ireland.-Adj. BRITISH; inbab. Brrr'-on.

GREECE, (Anc. Gr. 'Eanas, Hellas; Lat. Græ/cia,) a country in the S. E. part of Europe, once distinguished above all others as the seat of civilization, learning, and the arts. Passing over that period of Grecian bistory which was so brilliant, and is so well known, we will merely observe that, after undergoing various vicissitudes, during the decline of the Roman power, Greece at last became permanently incorporated with the Ottoman empire, on the fall of Constantinople, 1453, and rernained in this condition till 1821, when the last successful strug. gle for Grecian freedom commenced. After a long and sanguinary contest, through the interference of England, France, and Russia, the independence of Greece was at length recognised by the Turkish sultan, in 1829. The present kingdom of Greece is situated between 36° 23° and 39° 14' N. Lat., and 20° 43 and 24° 35' E. Lon., including the island of Negropont. T'he northern boundary of the continental portion extends, in a somewhat tortuous line, from the Gulf of Volo, on the E., to the Gulf of Arta on the W. A considerable part of it is formed by the mountain ridge called Othrys, which runs nearly E. and W., a little N. of the 39th parallel. All the principal islands of the Ægean Sea lying W. of the 26th meridian of È. Lon., with the exception of Crete, belong also to the kingdom of Greece. Area estimated at 18,500 sq. m. Pop. 700,000. (B.) The government is a limited hereditary monarchy. under the protection of England, France, and Russia. Athens is the capital.-Adj. and inhab. GREEK and GRECIAN, greel-shun.

GREEN, a co. in the S. part of Wisconsin, bordering on Illinois. Pop. 933.

GREEN BAY, a large bay on the W. side of L. Michigan, above 100 m. long, and from 15 in. to 35 m. broad.

GREEN MOUNTAINS, a range which commences in Vt., near the Canada line, and running S., through the western part of this state, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, terminates at West Rock, near New Haven. Those portions situated within Massachusetts and Connecticut are not usually called by the general name.

GREEN River, a r. of Ky., which rises in the E. central part of the state, and, flowing westerly for more than half of its course, and after wards in a general north-westerly direction, empties itself into the Ohio r. It is navigable, for boats, about 200 m.

GREEN-BRI-ER, a r. in the W. part of Va., flowing into New River,

GREENBRIER, à co. in the W. part of Va., intersected by the above, and bordering on New River. Pop. 8,695. Co. t. Lewisburg.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng ; G, like j.

GREENE, a co. in the S. E. part of N. Y., W. of and bordering on the Hudson r. Pop. 30,446. Co. t. Catskill.

GREENE, a co. forming the S. W. extremity of Pa. Pop. 19,147. Co. t. Waynesburg.

GREENE, a co. in the N. E. central part of Va., bordering on the Blue Ridge. Pop. 4,232.

GREENE, a co. in the E. central part of N. C., a little to the N. of Neuse River. Pop. 6,595. Co. t. Snow Hill.

GREENE, a co. in the N. E. central part of Ga., bordering on the Oconee. Pop. 11,690. Co. t. Greensborough.

GREENE, a co. in the W. part of Ala., intersected by the Black Warrior, and bordering on the Tombigbee. Pop. 24,024. Co. t. Erie.

GREENE, a co. in the S. E. part of Miss., bordering on Alabama. Pop. 1,636. Co. seat, Leakeville.

GREENE, a co. near the N. E. extremity of Ark., bordering on the St. Francis. Pop. 1,586.

GREENE, a co. near the E. extremity of Tenn., bordering on North Carolina and the French Broad r. Pop 16,076. Co. t. Greenville.

GREENE, a co. near the centre of Ky., intersected by Green r. Pop. 14,212. Co. t. Greensburg.

GREENE, a co. in the S. W. central part of Ohio, a little to the E. of the Miami r. Pop. 17,528. Co. t. Xenia.

GREENE, 1 co. in the W. S. W. part of Ind., intersected by the W. Fork of the White r. Pop. 8,321. Co. t. Bloomfield.

GREENE, a co. in the W. part of Ill., bordering on the Illinois r. Pop. 11,951. Co. t. Carrollton."

GREENE, a co. in the S. W. part of Mo. Pop. 5,372. Co. t: Springfield.

GREEN-LAND, (Dan. Grön-land or Groenland, being the same in signification with the English name.) It appears to be now ascertained that Greeoland is not, as was formerly supposed, a peninsula of the new continent, but an insular group, consisting of two or three large islands, surrounded by several other smaller ones. (B.) That portion which is the best known is situated between Iceland and the American contipent. The most southern point is Cape Farewell, Lat. 59° 49' N., Lon. 43° 54' W. A large portion of the eastern, as well as the whole northern coast, is still unexplored. The whole country may be regarded as one enormous mass of rocks; in many places it rises close to the water's edge into precipitous and lofty mountains, crowned with inaccessible cliffs. The climate, as might be expected, is extremely cold, but is considered very healthy. Generally speaking, July is the only month in which there is no snow. Graah observes that, on the eastern coast, S. of 65° N. Lat., in 1830, the sea every night was covered with a crust of new ice, as early as the close of August. He states, however, that in February, the thermometer did not sink lower than 6° below the zero of Fahrenheit. Vegetation must, of course, be very scant; in such a country and climate. It appears that no kind of grain succeeds here. Potatoes are planted only towards the most Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pin; no, not; õó as in good, southern extremity. The only domestic animal of the Greenlanders is the dog, which is used to draw the sledges. Rein-deer, hares, foxes, and white bears appear to be the only wild animals among quadrupeds. Land-birds are not numerous, but sea-fowl are exceedingly abundant, as are also many kinds of fish. Greenland belongs to the crown of Denmark.-Inhab. GREEN-LAND-ER.

GREEN-OCK, an important manufacturing and commercial t. of Scotland, in Renfrewshire, on the S. side of the Frith of Clyde, 21 m: W. by N. from Glasgow. The harbour has sufficient depth of water for the largest vessels, and good anchorage. Steamboats run daily from this town to Belfast, in Ireland. Lat. 55° 58' N., Lon. 4° 44' W. The pop., according to the last census, amounts to 36,135, exceeding that of 1831 by more than 9,000.

GREENS-VILLE, a co. in the S. E. part of Va., intersected by the Meherrin r., and bordering on N.C. Pop. 6,366. Co. t. Hicksford.

GREEN-UP, a co. forming tbe N. E. extremity of Ky. Pop. 6,297. Co. t. Greenup.

GREEN-VILLE, a dist. in the N. W. part of S. C., bordering on N.C. Pop. 17,839. Seat of justice Greenville c. h.

GREENWICH, grin'-idge, a t. of England, in Kent, situated on the right bank of the Thames, 5 m. E. S. E. of London. Here is a hospital for disabled seamen, which is considered one of the finest in the world, containing accommodations for about 3,000 persons. The money received from visiters and from other sources is appropriated to the support of a school, in which about 200 of the children of the inmates are instructed in those branches which relate to a seafaring life. Greenwich is also distinguished as the seat of the Royal Observatory, from the meridian of which, English astronomers and geographers compute the longitude. Lat. 51° 28' 39", Lon. 0° 0' 0". Pop., including an area of about 3 sq. m., 29,755.

GREIFSWALDE, grifs - Wall.deh, formerly GRIPESWOLD, a t. of Prussia, in Pornerania, situated near a little bay which projects from the Baltic. Here is a university, the buildings of which constitute the chief orna. ment of the town. It has thirty professors, and a library of above 32,000 vols. Lat. 54° 4' N., Lon. 13° 33' E. Pop. 8,000. (B.)

GRENADA, gren-d-dạ, one of the Lesser Antilles, about 20 m. long and 9 m. broad. It is intersected by the 12th parallel of N. Lat., and by the meridian of 61° 45' W. Lon. Pop. in 1834, 25,422. (P.C.)

GREN -OBLE', a fortified city of France, the cap. of the dep. of Isere, and formerly of Dauphiné, on the r. Isère, 296 m. S.S. E. of Paris. This place is famous for the manufacture of gloves, which, according to official documents, amounts to 3,600,000 pair annually. Among the various literary and scientific institutions of Grenoble, may be men tioned the Académie Universitaire, the College Royal, and the Society of Science and Arts. In the time of the Romans this town was known by the name of Cularo, which was afterwards, in the fourth century, changed, in honour of the emperor Gratian, to Gratianopolis, of which

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng ; G, like j. the modern Grenoble is a corruption. Lat. 45° 12' N., Lon. 5° 44' E. Pop. 26,000. (B.)

GRINDELWALD, grin-del-wålt', a village of Switzerland, in the cantop of Berne, situated in a romantic valley of the same name, which is intersected by the parallel of 46° 39' N. Lat., and the 8th meridian of E. Lon. In the vicinity is the immense glacier of Grindelwald.

GRISONS, gre'-ZON', (Ger. Graubündten, groul-bünt-en,) the largest* canton of Switzerland, occupying the S. E. extremity of that country. Its greatest length, from E. to W., is about 87 m.; its greatest breadth, from N. to S., is about 54 m. The area is computed at about 3,000 sq. mn. Pop. 96,000. (P. C.) Capital, Coire. Grisons in French signifies "gray," and Graubundten in German, the “ gray allies." 'The name originated in the following circumstance. In the year 1424, the chief inhabitants of this portion of the country, having become weary of the oppression of their feudal lords, met under a large maple, in a forest near the village of Trons, and entered into a solemn compact to defend each other's property and persons, and to oblige their lords to respect the same. This was called the Gray League (Graubund, grou/-boont), from their being dressed in gray frocks. The maple tree of Trons remained standing till near the close of the last century: it was felled during the French invasion.

GROD'-NO, an ancient t. in the S. W. part of European Russia, the cap. of a goy, of the same name, situated on the Niemen, 156 m. N. E. of Warsaw. The Polish and Lithuanian Diets were formerly sometimes held here. Lat. 53° 40' N., Lon. 23° 50' E. Pop. above 10,000. (P. C.)

GRONI-ING-EN or hrol-ning-en, a prov. occupying the N. extremity of Holland, bordering on the kingdom of Hanover and the German Ocean. The area is 770 sq. m. Pop. in 1824, 153,860.

GRONINGEN, the cap. of the above, and the most important town in the N. of Holland, is situated on the Hun'-sę, about 12 m. from its en. trance into the Lauwer Zee (loul-Wer zay). The great church of St. Martin is the most remarkable edifice. Among the literary and scientific institutions of Groningen, the University and the Botanic Garden may be mentioned. Lat. 539 12 N., Lon. 6° 31' E. Pop. above 24,000. (B.) GRUNDY, a co. in the N. E. part of III., intersected by the Illinois r. GRUNDY, a co. in the N. part of Mo., on Grand r.

Gross WARDEIN, grocel-War-dine', (Hung. Nagy Várad, nödy vååröd,) a t. of Hungary, on the Körös (kö-rösh), a tributary of the Theiss, with an academy (which is a sort of university), and other literary institutions. Lat. 47° 2' N., Lon. 21° 53' E. Pop. 7,000. (B.)

GRÜNBERG, grün'-bőRG, or GRU-NE-BERG', a walled t. in the N. part of Prussian Silesia, the cap. of a circle of the same name, with flourish

• Balbi gives 1,938 geographical sq. m. for the area of Grisons, and 1,933 for that of Berne According to the P.C., Berne has the greater area.

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