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Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, nðt; öð as in good; Academy (La Academia de la Lengua, i. e. "the Academy of the Language"), founded in 1724, in imitation of the French Academy, and intended to be, like that body, the supreme tribunal in matters of literature: the Museum of Natural History, in which public lectures are given on various sciences, including mathematics, and which contains a splendid collection of minerals from the Spanish dominions in America, besides specimens in the other departments of natural history. There are two extensive libraries open to the public; one founded by Philip V., in 1712, which cortains 150,000 vols., besides a very large collection of manuscripts, and a museum of medals and antiquities. Lat. 40° 25' N., Lon. 3° 42' W. Pop. in 1825, estimated at 201,000. (B.) -Adj. and inhab. Mad'-RF-LE/-NI-AN (Borrow)-Spanish, MADRILEÑO, måd-re-lanel-yo.
MADURA. See JAVA.
MAESTRICHT or MAASTRICHT, mås-trikt, (Anc. Trajec/tum ad Mol. sam, *) a strongly fortified t. of Holland, cap. of the Dutch part of the prov. of Limburg, on the Meuse or Maas, 14 m. N. by E. of Liege. In the vicinity is the mountain of St. Peter (Petersberg), remarkable for its immense stone quarries, which extend over a tract of 12 leagues in circumference, traversed, it is said, by 20,000 passages, which cross each other in all directions, forming such an intricate labyrinth that it is dangerous to enter it without an experienced guide. The inhabitants of the surrounding country, it is said, have found, in time of war, a safe refuge in this quarry, both for themselves and their cattle. Some parts of this mountain are supposed to have been worked 2,000 years ago. Lat. of the town, 50° 51' N., Lon. 5° 41' E. Pop. 22,000. (P. C.)
MAG-A-DOXI-A or MAG-A-Dox-o (Port. pron. mág-8-dol-sho: called by the inhabitants Måk -8-joo'), at. on the E. coast of Africa, cap. of a king, dom of the same name, of which very little is known to Europea ns. Lat. about 2° N., Lon. 45° 20' E.
MAG-DA-LE'-NA (Sp. pron. måg-då-lal-nå), the principal r. of New Granada, in S. America. It rises in the little lake Papas (på-pos among the Andes, in about 1° 50' N. Lat. and 76° 30' W. Lon., and, ficwing northerly, empties itself into the Caribbean Sea, in about 11° 10 N. Lat. and 74° 45' W. Lon. Its entire length is estimated at above 800 m. It is navigable as far as Honda, more than 500 m.
Magl-DE-BURG (Ger. pron, måol-deh-bõõrg'), a city of Germany, cap. of the prov. of Prussian Saxony and of a gov. of its own name, on the Elbe, 74 m. S. W. of Berlin. This place is very strongly fortified, and is one of the most important bulwarks of the Prussian monarchy. It ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. is also the centre of an active commerce, and possesses various and extensive manufactures. Among the buildings we may mention the Cathedral, remarkable for its size; it has two steeples, 350 ft. in height, and one of the largest bells in Europe. The literary and scientific institutions, as well as the charitable establishments of this town, are numerous and well conducted. Lat. 52° 8' N., Lon. 11° 39' E. Pop. 50,000. (P. C.)
* Maestricht is supposed to be a corruption of Mose Trajectum, i. e, the "bridge or passage of the Meuse," there having been a bridge over the river, at this place, in very early times.
MAGELLAN, maj-el'-lan,* (Sp. pron. må-hél-yản/,) STRAIT OF, at the S. extremity of S. America, between Patagonia and Terra del Fuego. Its whole length, following its windings, is more than 300 m. It was discovered in 1520, by the great Portuguese navigator, Magalhaens (måg-ål-yål-ens), then in the service of Spain, and called, in honour of him, the Strait of Magalhaens. The Spaniards changed the name to Magellan, which, in their language, expresses a sound not very different from that of the Portuguese Magalhaens.
MAGGIORE, Lago, lal-go måj-jo'-rà, or the “large lake," (Anc. La/cus Verba/nus; Ger. Langensee, lång/-en-sål, or "long lake,") next to Garda the largest lake in Italy, lying partly between Piedmont and Lombardy, and partly in the Swiss canton of Tessin or Ticino. It is intersected by the 46th parallel of N. Lat. and the meridian of 8° 40' E. Lon.; having a length of above 40 m., with a breadth varying from 1 to 6 m. Its surface is 578 ft. above the level of the sea ; its greatest depth is stated by McCulloch to be not less than 300 fathoms!
MAGINDANAO. See MINDANAO.
MAHANUDDY, måh'-ha-nud/-de, a r. of Hindostan, which rises in about 21° 30' N. Lat. and 81° E. Lon., and, flowing easterly, enters the Bay of Bengal, by several mouths, in about 20° 10' N. Lat., after a course of more than 500 m.
Mahon, må-hone or må-onel, or Port MAHON, a sea port t. near the E. S. E. extremity of the island of Minorca, remarkable for possessing one of the finest and safest harbours in the world. Lat. 39° 51' N., Lon. 4° 18' E. Pop, unknown.t
MAID-STONE, a t. of England, in Kent, 31 m. E. S. E. of London. Pop. of the borough, including an area of pear 7 sq. m., 18,086.
MAIN or MAYN, mine, a r. of Germany, which rises in the northern part of Bavaria, and after a very circuitous course, falls into the Rhine, nearly opposite to Mentz. The whole length is about 230 m. Though
• “From cold Estotiland and south as far
Beneath MAGELLAN."-Milton's Paradise Lost, Book X.
MONTGOMERY's Voyage round the World. # McCulloch states the population of Port Mahon at about 19,000, but this is eridently a mistake. The P. C. gives 19,000 for the population of the district or terraino of Mahon; that of the whole island is only about 35,000.
Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; płne or pine, pin; nd, ndt; oo as in good, shallow, it is of nearly uniform depth, and navigable throughout seveneighths of its course.
Maine, mane, one of the former provinces of France, now chiefly distributed among the departments of Sarthe, Mayenne, and Orue.
Maine, one of the U. Š., situated between 43° 4' and 47° 30' N. Lat., and 66° 50' and 71° W. Lon.; bounded on the E. by New Brunswick, N. and W. by Canada and New Hampshire, and S. by the Atlantic; and divided into 13 counties.* Extreme length, according to the boundary established in 1842, about 320 m.; greatest breadth, from E. to W., about 200 m. The area is estimated at 32,000 sq.m.; according to the former boundary it is supposed to have exceeded 35,000 sq. m. Pop. 501,793. Augusta is the capital. Maine originally formed a part of the territory of Massachusetts: it was separated, and became an independent state in 1820.
MAINE AND LOIRE (Fr. Maine-et-Loire, mane å lwÅR), a dep in the W. part of France, on the rivers Mayenne and Loire. Pop. 477,270. (B.) Capital, Angers.
MAINI-LAND, the largest and most southerly of the Shetland Islands, is about 52 m. in length, and 20 in its greatest breadth. The form is very irregular, and the island, for the most part, craggy, mountainous, and barren.
MAJ-ORI-CA (Sp. Mallorca, mål-yor!-cå), the largest of the Balearic Isles, situated in the Mediterranean, between 39° 15' and 40° N. Lat., and 2° 23' and 3° 32' E. Lon. It is about 60 m. long, measuring nearly E. and W.; its greatest breadth, from N. to s., is 47 m. Majorca belongs to Spain, from the nearest part of which it is distant nearly 110 m. This island is very fertile, though the general surface of the country is hilly. Pop. about 140,000. (P. C.) The climate is described as being exceedingly mild and delightful. Palma is the capital, and the largest town on the island. Majorca and Minorca were anciently named Gymnesiæ; while the epithet of Major, or “the larger," was given the former, and that of Minor, or “the smaller," to the latter island.—Adj. and inhab. MAJ-OR-CẠN or MALLORQUINE, mal-lor-keen'; (Sp. Mallorquin, mål-yor-keen'.)
MAL'-A-BAR', a name usually applied to the whole W. coast of Hin dostan, from Cape Comorin to Bombay ; but, strictly speaking, it de notes only that dist. or prov., with the adjoining coast, in which the Malabaric language is spoken, which does not extend beyond 12° 30' N. Lal. --Adj. MAL-A-BARI-IC.
MA-LAC-CĄ a t.of S. Asia, the cap. of a small colony of the same name, belonging to Great Britain, is situated on the W. coast of the Malay peninsula. It was formerly a place of considerable importance, but since the foundation of Singapore, in 1819, it has sunk into compa rative insignificance. Lat. 20 10' N., Lon. 102° 5' E. Pop. in 1822 12,000. (P. C.)
• Aroostook, Cumberland, Franklin, Hancock, Kennebec, Lincoln Oxford, Penobscot, Piscataquis, Somerset, Waldo, Washington, York.
ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. MALACCA, STRAIT OF, is situated between the Malay peninsula and the island of Surnatra. Its breadth in some places is less than 30 m.; its whole length is about 600 m.
Mail-A-GẠ or mål-8-gå (Anc. Mallaca), the principal seaport of the Spanish prov. of Granada, situated on a bay in the Mediterranean, with a fine harbour. From the earliest ages, under all the nations who have possessed it, this place has been renowned for its commerce; and at present it is the only flourishing city in Andalusia. (P. C.) Lat. 36° 43' N., Lon. 4° 25' W. Pop. stated at 52,000. (B.)
MALAISIA, mal-al-she-a, (Fr. Malaisie, må-la-zel) or the MALAY ARCHIPELAGO, called also the Indian, and sometimes the EASTERN ARCHIPELAGO, the most western and most important of the three great divisions of Oceanica, is situated between 12° S. and 21° N. Lat., and 95° and 133o E. Lon. It comprehends the Philippine and Molucca groups, the large islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, and a multitude of smaller islands. The line which separates Malaisia from Polynesia, runs W. of Papua and E. of Gilolo, Mysol, and Ceram. (See OCEANICA.). Malaisia derives its name from the circumstance that the inhabitants, for the most part, belong to the great Malay race.--Adj. MALAIBIAN, mal-al-she-an.
MÄLAREN, md-lar-en, a lake of Sweden, about 70 m. in length, which communicates with the Baltic at Stockholm.
MALAY PENINSULA, called also the PENINSULA OF MALACCA or MALAYA (mal-al-ya), a long and narrow territory in Chin India, forming the most southern part of the continent of Asia, situated between 10 15' and about 12° N. Lat., and 98o and 104° 20' E. Lon. It is about 800 m. long, with a breadth varying from 50 to above 180 m. Area estimated at 80,000 sq.m. The soil appears to be, in general, not distinguished for fertility ; but the mineral wealth of this region is remarkable. Gold is found in all the rivers, and is also obtained from mines in quantities sufficient to justify the name of Chersonesus Aurea, or the “ golden peninsula," which the ancients gave to this country. Tin is also found in abundance. The inhabitants of the peninsula are Siamese and Malays; the former occupy that portion which is N. of the 5th or 6th degree of N. Lat., and the Malays the remainder.--Adj. MAL-Ay/AN and MAL-AY'; inhab. MALAY.
The MALAYS, according to Blumenbach, constitute the fourth grand division of the human race. In form they are short and robust. The medium height of the men may be 5 ft. 2 inches; that of the women 4 ft. 11 inches. The face is round, the mouth wide, and the teeth, in general, remarkably fine. These people have great mental activity, and eagerly apply themselves to commerce and navigation. (P. C.) Some of them appear to have made considerable advancement in civilization, and to be well acquainted with agriculture and the mechanic arts. They have also made some progress in medicine and in music. The Malays are spread not only over the islands of the Malay Archipelago, Madagascar, and the southern part of the Asiatic continent, but appear also to be found even in the remotest parts of Polynesia.
Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mé, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; oo, as in good;
Mau-pives or Mall-Dive ISLANDS (called by the natives Mal-e-deel. va, from Malé, the principal island, and deeva, a word signifying “ island"), a chain of small islands in the Indian Ocean, extending from about 10 S. to 7° N. Lat., and situated between 72° 30' and 74o E. Lon. The whole number is near 700. Total pop. stated at 19,000.
Mall-Lów, a t. of Ireland, in the co. of Cork, 18 m. N. by W. of Cork. Pop. in 1831, 7,099. (M.)
MALMÖ, måll-mö, a fortified sea port t. of Sweden, in the prov. of Skåne, the cap. of the dist. of Malmöhus (mall-mö-hooce), situated on the sound nearly opposite to Copenhagen. Lat. 55° 37' N., Lon. 13° l'E. Pop. 8,000. (B.)
MALO, SAINT, sån må-lol, a fortified and walled t. of France, in the Ille and Vilaine, situated on the Channel (La Manche), with a harbour large and safe, but difficult of access, on account of the narrowness of its entrance, and of the rocks and shoals which obstruct it. The tide here is said to be higher than in any other part of the European coast. St. Malo has an active commerce and considerable manufactures. Lat. 48° 39' N., Lon. 2° 1' W. Pop. 10,000. (B.)
MÅL-TA (Anc. Melita), an i. in the Mediterranean, belonging to the English, about 55 m. S. from the nearest part of Sicily, and intersected by the parallel of 35° 50' N. Lat., and the meridian of 14° 30' E. Lon. It is about 17 m. in length, and 9 in its greatest breadth. Pop. in 1837, 104,521. (P. C.) Valetta is the capital. Adj. and inhab. M i TEŞE.
MÅL'-wẠu, a prov. of Hindostan, on the r. Nerbuddah, situated principally between 220 and 26° N. Lat., and 74o and 80° E. Lon.
MAN, ISLE OF (Anc. Molna, Mona' pia, and Moneda), a small i. be. longing to Great Britain, in the Irish Sea, about 28 m. from the nearest part of Cumberland. Length, 35 m.; greatest breadth about 13 m. Pop. 47,975.-Adj. Manx.
MAN-AARI, GULF OF, is situated between the Island of Ceylon and the S. extremity of Hindostan.
MANCHA, LA, lå mån-chå, a prov. of Spain, in the S. part of New Castile, bordering on Andalusia. - Adj. and inhab. MAN-CHE-OẠN; (Sp. Manchego, mån-cha-go.)
MANCHE, månsh, a dep. in the N. W. part of France, bordering on the English Channel (called by the French La Manche). Pop. 594,382. (B.) Capital, St. LÔ.
MAN-CHĘS-TER, the great centre of the cotton manufacture of Great Britain, and the principal manufacturing town in the world, is situated in Lancashire, on the Irwell, a branch of the Mersey, 31 m. E. of Liverpool, and 163 N. N. W. of London. A multitude of mean-looking houses, in which the manufacturers lodge, a number of irregular, narrow, and ill-pa ved streets, and the continual smoke which rises from so many steam-engines, render the general aspect of this place rather repulsive. The newer parts of the town, however, are, for the most part, of a very different character. The streets are handsome, and several of the public edifices might be accounted ornaments to any