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25. S, at the beginning of a word, or between two vowels, is like *; in other cases it is sharp, as in this. Ss is always sharp.

26. Sch sounds like the English sh; sz like ss. 27. Th is pronounced like t.

28. V sounds like f in English, except when between two vowels; it is then usually pronounced like our v.

29. W resembles our v, but in pronouncing it, the upper teeth should not be allowed to touch the lower lip, as is done in uttering the Eng. lish v. This sound is indicated by a capital w.

30. Z and tz sound like is.


XXI. 1. A a (alpha) is like a in far. 2. E & (epsilon) “ a in fate. 3. Hn (eta) “ ee in English. 4. I u (ióta) e in me, or i in pin. 5. O o Comicron) " o in English. 6. T v (upsilon) is nearly like the French u (or ü).

7. aw (oměga) is like o in English, there being no difference between this and omicron in prose; in poetry w is longer,

8. Ac is like a in fate. 9. E. and ou sound like ee in English. 10. Ou is like our 00. 11. B 6 (bēta) is like 'v in English. 12. r y (gamma) “ g, hard, as in get. 13. A 8 (delta) “ th in this. 14. z 5 (zēta) “ the English Z. 15. © G (théta) “ th in thin. 16. K x (kappa) - k. 17. ^ a (lambda) 18. M (mu) 19. N v (nu) 20. = 3 (xi)

21. II a (pi) is usually like the English p; but after je (m), it is like b; e. g. žuttopos is pronounced em'-bo-ros.

22. P p (rho) is similar to the German r. 23. Eos (sigma) is like the English s.

24. T < (tau) is usually like the English t; after » (n), however, it is sounded like d; e. g. Èvròs is pronounced en-dos'.

25. T v (consonant) when before a vowel, or the liquids l, m, n, r, is like our v; e.g. avepiw is pronounced åv-d-sü'-o, aidos, åv-los', atplov, åt'-se-on: in other cases it is likef; e. g. Aevxadía (Leucadia) is pronounced lef--The'-8.

26. $ (phi) is equivalent to our f.
27. X x (chi) is similar to ch in German.
28. V f (psi) is like ps in English.

Obs. Recently it has become the practice to give to all, or nearly all, the islands, towns, &c., of modern Greece, their ancient names, and it is probable that, at no distant period, such modern corruptions as

Theaki for Ithaca, Scio for Chios, may be regarded as obsolete. But, as the modern names are employed in nearly all our books on geography, and in the writings of the English travellers and poets, it has been thought proper in a work like the present, which is intended for popular use, to assign to them their accustomed place.


XXII. 1. A, unaccented, is like o in not; with an accent (á), it has the sound of a in far, and is always long; thus, Aba Uj-vár, the name of a town, is pronounced ob-õh 00-e våår.

2. E, unaccented, is like e in met; with an accent (é),* it has a sound intermediate between e in met and i in pit, but more prolonged.

3. I, and y when a vowel, are similar to e in me, or i in fig.

4. O, without an accent, is the same as in English; when accented (6),* it has a longer and deeper sound.

5. U, without an accent is like oo in English, with the accent (ú,)* its sound is fuller and deeper.

• The peculiarity of these sounds cannot be indicated by English letters; in giving the pronunciation of Hungarian names, we have merely distinguished them as being long.

6. Oe or ö, and ü, are the same as in German. 7. The consonants b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, t, v, %, are like the English.

8. C is not used without being joined with some other consonant cs is sounded like ch in English ; cz like ts.

9. G, except when followed by j or y, is always hard, as in the Eng lish word get. Gh sounds like a simple g.

10. J is usually like e in English ; uj is pronounced 00-e. Dj aná gj are equivalent to dy and gy, and tj to ty. (See 16, 17, and 20, of this Section.)

11. R is like the German; in other words, is to be trilled more strongly than the English.

12. S is like the English sh.
13. Sz is like s sharp, or ss.
14. Ts is equivalent to cs, or ch in English.
15. Tz is like cz, or ts in English.

16. Y, in Hungarian, is nearly always a consonant. When it follows d, g, l, n, and t, it seems to be blended with these letters, so as to form bat one consonant sound.

17. Dy and gy are alike. Magyar is pronounced mõd-yor. · 18. Ly is like I in Spanish, or lli in the English word million. Vásárhely is pronounced in three syllables-våå-shåảr-hểī.

19. Ny is like the Spanish ñ, or ni in minion. Mártony is pronounced in two syllables-måår-toñ.

20. Ty approximates the sound of our ch, bearing the same relation to t, that dy does to d.

21. Zs sounds like the French j, or zh in English.

OBS. The Hungarian language cannot be said to have any accent, in the sense in which we employ this term : the syllables of words, however, are distinguished from each other by quantity As quantity in Latin and Greek is converted into accent by the usage of English pronunciation, so, in giving Hungarian names which are ordinarily used in geographical works, we have placed the accent according to the quantity; e.g. Csongrád, chon-gråảd'; but when the name is not in common use, but is merely given in a parenthesis, the quantity only of the vowel has been indicated, as this mode of marking the pronunciation is more strictly accurate; e.g. HUNGARY (Hung. Magyar Ország, mõd-yoR OR-sååg).

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XXIII. 1. A, in Italian, is like the English a in far, though its sound varies somewhat in different situations. *

2. E has two sounds: (1.) close, as a in fate; (2.) open, like e in ret.

3. I is like e in me, or i in fig.

4. O has two sounds; (1.) close, as in note ; (2.) open, similar to o in not, but rather broader.

5. U is like oo in English.

6. Ai and au, in Italian, are proper diphthongs. (See XX., 13, Obs.) Accordingly, Cairo is to be pronounced ki’-ro, and Ausa, ou’-se,


7. The consonants b, d, f, l, m, n, p, q, s, t, and v, are similar to the English.

Obs. K, w, x, and y, are not used by the Italians, except in spelling foreign names.

8. C and cc, before a, 0, and u, are sounded like k; before e, i, and y, like ch or tsh.

OBs. Cc should be pronounced more strongly than a single c. This remark will apply to all double letters, in Italian, as well as in most other languages.

9. As c, when immediately before a, o, or u, is never pronounced like ch, in order to express this sound in such cases, the vowel i is inserted; thus, cia, cio, ciu, are pronounced chả, cho, choo. (See table at the end of this Section.)

10. Ch is employed to express the sound of k before e and i.

11. G, before a, o, and u, is hard, as in the English word get; before e, i, and y, it sounds like the English j; gia, gio, giu, are pronounced jả, jo, joo. (See table at the end of this Section.)

• Of all the European tongues, the Italian has, probably, been brought to the greatest degree of perfection. There are, however, a number of niceties in this Language, which, however interesting to a thorough linguist, cannot properly be noticed in a work like the present. The difficulty of giving a brief, and, at the same time, a satisfactory exposition of the principles of Italian pronunciation, is increased by the existence of different dialects in different parts of Italy. It has been deemed sufficient, in this synopsis, merely to explain those principles of pronunciation which appear to be recognized by the Italians generally.

12. Gh is used to express the sound of hard g, before e, and i.

13. Gli has the sound of the liquid 1 (), or of lli in million; thus, Boglio is pronounced bole-yo.

14. Gn has the same sound as in French; or, in other words, is like the Spanish ñ; e.g. Bologna is pronounced bo-lone'-yå.

15. H is never sounded in Italian.

16. J, at the beginning of a syllable, is like the English y (consonant); at the end of a word, it is equivalent to ii (Italian).

17. R resembles the French, but is trilled somewhat more strongly. (See XIX., 24).

18. Sc, before e, and i, is like the English sh; e.g. Scio is pro nounced Shee'-o.

19. Z commonly has the sound of dz in English ; zz is pronounced

like ts.

The following table will, perhaps, enable the reader more readily to understand the mode in which cand ch, g and gh are employed by the Italians. ca is pronounced kå

ga is pronounced gå

ghe “ . gå
" ke

ghi “




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" koo

gu “ goo

gia " ja

ge 1 iš

giu Obs. It may be observed, that, in consequence of the position of Italy, and its former extensive and intimate commercial relations with the Levant, a great number of the geographical names of Greece, Syria, and Egypt, as well as many of those along the southern shore of the Mediterranean, are written in the Italian mode, and should be pronounced according to the principles of this language; e.g. CORFU, TRIPOLIZZA, Scio, JAFFA, Cairo, &c.



XXIV. As a written language, the Norwegian may be said to be identical with the Danish, since not only the grammar, but, with very few excep

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