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The following Table is intended to exhibit the striking discrepancy in the mode of writing the same geographical homes, which occurs in the works of respectable autbon. (See Preface, page xii., and Introduction, page 2)
Small capitals are used to denote the mode of spelling which occurs in the Gazetteer, and wbich the authors constdered to be the preferable orthography.
An asterisk denotes that the pronunciation of the spelling to which it is appended is differez from that of the other But when a name occurs with two or more different spellings, not marked by an asterisk, it is to be understood that the pronunciation of all these is essentially the same.
Is the reader will bear in mind that oo in English, or in French, and u in Italian and German, have the same sound: that í in all the languages of continental Europe is similar to ee in English; that j, in two-thirds of the European languages, is like our y; that ch in French, and ich in German, is equivalent to our sh, and that and before e and ) in French is like our alvor z in aztert-and nearly like the German sch; a clue will be furnished to many of the per plexities with which geographical spelling and pronunciation so much abound. Some other difficulties are explainod in the Table by reference to the Introduction : e... Habana, Havana ; Xingu, Chingu
(App-) placed after a name, indicates that it is to be found in the Appendix.
A BOOKEER, Aboukir.
CANTON, XQuangtong. [mire, Kashmir. ABOOSHEHR, Abuschehr, Abouchehr. Writ- CASHMERE, Cachemir, Kashmeer, Kacheten also Bushire (boo-sheer').
Caubul. See CABOOL. Achmouneyn, OsHMOONEYX.
CELLE, Zelle, (XX. 18 and 30.) Aichstadt, EICHSTADT.
Charkow, Kharkow, KHARKOF, Kharkov AKHMYM, Achmim, Ekmim.
Chat-el-Arab, SHATT-EL-ARAB. ALEN TEJO, ALEM-TEJO.
Cheboygan, SHEBOYGAN. Amarapoura, UMMERAPOORA.
CHIENNE, Cheyenne, Shienne, (App.) AMASERA, Amasreh.
Chingu, XINGU, (XXVI. 11.) AMOO, Amu, Amou.
COAHUILA, Cohahuila, (App.) AMOOR, Amour, Amur.
COMANCHE, Camanche, (App.) AMRETSIR, Amretseer, Umritseer.
CORDOVA, Cordoba, (XXVII. 4.) ANADEER, Anadir.
CORUNNA, *Coruña. Anatolia. See NATOLIA.
Courland, KOORLAND, Kurland. ANDUJAR, Anduxar.
DANTZIC, Danzig. ANGORA, *Engoor, *Enguri.
DARFOOR, Darfur, Darfour, Dar Foor. ANZOOAX, Anzouan, *Anjouan.
DEZFOOL, Dezphoul, Dezfoul, Dezful. ARKEEKO, Arkiko.
Djidda or Djeeda. See JIDDA. ARGOON, Argoun, Argun.
*DOURO, *Duero. ASSWAN, Assouan, Assuan.
DOVREFIELD, Daavrefjeld, Dofrafield. ATCHEEN, Acheen.
DROHOBICZ, Drohovitsch. ATFE, Attih.
DRONTHEIM, Trondhiem, Trondjem. Axoom, Axum, Axoum.
DUNKIRK, Dunkerque. AYASOOLOOK, Ayasalouk, Ayasaluk.
Ebora, Evora, (XXVII. 4.) AZOF, Azoph, Azoy.
EDINBURGH, Edinborough. Badakhshan, BUDUKUSHAN.
EICHSTADT, Aichstadt. Bairout. See BEYROOT.
*ELATMA, Yelatma, Ielatma. *BALFUROSH, Balfroosh, Balfrouch.
EKATERINBURG, Iekaterinbourg. Baschkire, Bashkeers, (a race of Tartars, ELISABETGRAD, Yelisavelgrad.
dwelling south of the i. Irtish in Siberia.) ERZROOM, Erzeroum, Erzrum, Ardzroom, Bassora, Bussora, Basrah, (XIX. 1 Obs.)' Arzerum, Arzeroum. BEDOUIN, BEDOWEEN, Beduin.
FERRO, *Hierro. BEYROOT, Bairont, Beirout, Berut.
GHEEZEK, Gizeh, *Jizeh.
GHENT, Gent, *Gand. BRANMAPOOTRA, *Burrampooter.
GLOUCESTER, Gloster. BUDUKUSHAN, Badakhshan, (XIX. 1 Obs.) GOOLDSHA, Guldscha, Gouldja, *Kuldsha. Burma, Birma.
GOTTINGEN, Goettingen, (XX. 8.) *Burrampooter, BRAHMAPOOTRA.
Guelders, GELDERS, BURSA, Boursa, Boorsa, *Brusa.
HAARLEM, Haerlem, Harlem. Bushire. See ABOOSHEHR.
HAVANA, Habana, (XXVII. 4.) CABOOL, Cabul, Caubul, Caboul.
[dostan Cacboeira, CaXOEIRA.
HINDOSTAN, Hindustan, Hindoostan, *lnCAIRO, *Kahira, *Qahera.
HINDOO, Hindu. Camanche, COMANCHE, (App.)
HIMALAYA, *Himmaleh. CAMBODIA, Cambodja, *Camboge.
Iaroslay, Jaroslaw, YAROSLAJ. CAMPEACHY, Campeche.
Indostan. See HINDOSTAN.
*Iskenderoon, SCANDEROON. 1 The cases in which is interchanged with X are
IVICA, Ibiza, (XXVII. 4, 5.) very numerous, especially in German, Russian, and Asiauc names.
Jakutsk or Iakoutsk. See YAKOUTSK.
BEDOUIN, Bensora, Basrah. Yen In Siberis
TABLE OF DIFFERENT SPELLINGS.
JALISCO, Xalisco, (App.)
| Oural, URAL. JANINA, Yanina, Joannina.
OURGHENDI, Oorghendj, Urghendi, *, Jaroslaw. See YAROSLAT.
ghenz, Urgantz. See kuva, Gazetteer. Jeddo, YEDDO.
PETIC, Pitic Jesso, lesso, Yesso, Yeso.
RHINE, Rhein, Rhyn. JEYPOOR, Jyepoor, Typoor.
ROOMELIA, Roumelia, Rumelia. JIDDA, Djidda, Djeeda.
Room ELEE, Rum Ili, Roum Ill. Jitomir, Zitomir, ZHITOMEIR.
SAREE, Sari. JOODPOOR, Jond poor.
SCANDEROON, *Iskenderoon JORULLO, Xorullo.
| [Russia) Schoa, SHÓA, Xoa. Jag, Yoog, r. (a branch of the Dwina, in *Schonen, SKAONE, (XXVIII. 2.). Kahira. See CAIRO.
SH0A, Schoa, Xoa (XXVI. 11), Shwa. KALOOGA, Kalouga, Kaluga.
8100T, Siout, *Osioot, *Esioot. KAMTCHATKA, Kamtschatha. (See Note, p. Sivas, SEEVAS.
*SLESWICK, Slesvig, *Schleswig. KHARKOF, Kharkow, Charkow, Kharkov. Siwah, SEEWAH. KHARTOOM, Khartum, Khartoum.
SOODAN, Soudan, Sudan. RHIVA, Kheeya.
SOORMOOL, Sourmoul, Surmul, (a gal! Kiev, Kiew, Kieff, Kiev.
town of Persia.) KIRMANSHAX, Kirmanshaw.
SoOLTANEEYEH, Sultanieh, Soultania. *KISTNA, Krishna.
SOORABAYA, Surabaya, Sourabaya. KLAGENFURTH, Clagenfurth.
SUEZ, Sooez, Soueys. KOAHOMA, Coahoma.
SUABIA, Swabia. KOOR, Kur, Kour.
TAHITI, Otaheite. KOORLAND, Kurland, Courland.
TABREEZ, Tabriz, *Tauris. KOORDISTAN, Kurdistan, Curdistan.
TABARKEYEH, Tabarieh. KOORSK, Koursk, Karsk.
| Tarsoos, Tarsous, Tarsus. KOORILE, Kurile, Kourile.
TCHERNIGOF, Czernigow, Tchernigoff Kuldsha. See GOOLDSHA.
TIBET, Thibet. KITAIYER, Kootajah, Koutaieh.
*TIMBUCTOO, Tombuctoo, Tombouctno, La Baca, LA VACCA, (App.)
Tombouctou, *Tenbocto. LANCEROTA, Lanzarota, (XXVII. 5, 18.) TOOLA, Toala, Tula. LEIPSIC, Leipzig.
TOORKISTAX, Turkistan. LEYDEX, Leiden.
TONKIN, Tonquin. Libadia, LIVADIA.
TORZHOK, Torschok, Torjok. LISLE, Lille.
Trondjem or Trondhiem, DRONTHEIM. Lixtz, Linz.
TRUXILLO, Trujillo. Livadia, Libadia, (XXI. 11.)
TORNEO, Torneå, (XXVIII. 2.) LUCERNE, *Luzern.
TVER, Twer. MAAS, Maese, *Meuse.
URAL, Oural. MAASTRICHT, Maestricht.
Urfa. See OORFA. MAELAREX, Malaren.
Urmiah. See OOROO MEEA. MAJORCA, *Mallorca.
USBECK, Oozbek, Ouzbek. Manchooria, MANTCHOORIA, Mandshuria. VIBORG, Wiborg. MARANHAM, Maranhão.
Vitebsk, Vitepsk, WITEBSK. MARAVI, Maravee.
VOLGA, Wolga. MARDEEX, Merdın.
VORONEZI, Voronege, Voronej, Woro MARMORA, Marmara.
nesch, *Voronetz, Woronetz. MAROSCH, Maros, (XXII. 12.)
WASHITA, Ouachitta. AIATAREEYEH, Mataria. Mataryeh.
WISCONSIN, Wiskonsan, Ouisconsin, "MATHURA, Muttra, (XIX. 1 Obs.)
WÜRTEMBERG, Wirtemberg. MEKINEZ, Mequinez, Meknas.
XALAPA, Jalapa, MERGUI, Merghi.
Xalisco, JALISCO, (App.)
Xoa. See SHÓA..
YAKOOTSK, lakoutsk, Jakutsk, Yakutsk. NATOLIA, * Anatolia, * Anadoli, * Anatoli. Yanina. See JANINA, NEZEKEN, Nejin, Neschin.
YARKUND, Yarkand, (XIX. 1 Obs.), NIZHNEE, Nijni, Nischnei.
YAROSLAF, Iaroslav, Jaroslaw. OLIVENZA, Olivença.
YEDDO, Jeddo. OORFA, Urfa, Ourfa.
| Yesso, Jesso. OOROOMEEA, 'Urumiya, *Ourmiah, Urmia. Zahara, SAHARA. OOOSTIOOG, Ustiug, Oustioug.
Zaragoza, *SARAGOSSA. taheite, TAHITI.
ZEBU, Cebu, (XXVII. 5 and 18.) Owhyhee, HawaII.
Zelle, CELLE, (XX. 18 and 3.) OSHOONEYX, Achmouneyn.
Zhitomeer, Jitomir, Schitomir, Zytomir, Ouachita, WASHITA.
*Zitomirz. Ouisconsin, WISCONSIN.
ZUYDER ZEE, Zuider Zee.
ABBREVIATIONS, SIGNS, ETC., EMPLOYED IN THIS WORK
feet. Ga. Georgia. Ger. German. gov. government or province.
1. The vowels a, e, i, o, marked with a point underneath (^ or a, por e, &c.) have an obscure sound, similar to short u, thus, MERTON should be pronounced almost mürl-tün or mürl-t'n. (See Introduction, VIII.)
2. x with two points underneath sounds like e.
3. has a sound similar to the French eu or nearly like that of e in her. It may be anglicized by e. (See Introduction, XX., 8.)
4. O is like the French u, being intermediate between ee and oo. (XIX., 5.)
5. Á letter when it has a line underneath, or when italicised, is silent; e. g. in WALKER, GREENE, öb-oh.*
6. tp, small capital, in the pronunciation of a name, indicates that its sound is similar to th in this.
7. to and K, small capitals, indicate the sound of the German ch or one similar to it. (VI. and XX., 19.)
8. th, sınall capital, has a sound nearly similar to the preceding, but more resembling a strongly aspirated h.
9. 1 (l liquid) is to be pronounced like lli in million : it blends the sounds of l and y consonant. (XXVII., 12.)
10. m and n, small capitals, are nasal, being similar in sound to ng. (XIX., 19.)
11. R, small capital, has the sound of rr in terror. (XIX., 24.)
12. u, small capital, indicates the sound of the French eu. It is pronounced nearly as u in tub or in fur.
13. tw, capital, has a sound similar to our v. 14. Y and ey, at the end of an unaccented sylable, sound like e in me. 15. Ai and ay are considered to be equivalent to a in fate. 16. Au and aw have the sound of a in fall. 17. éě indicates a sound similar to i in pit or in spirit.
18. Ow, when the o is not marked long (ow), is to be pronounced like ou in hour.
19. Gh is sometimes employed in pronunciation for g hard.
20. g is to be pronounced more softly than simple g. (XVII., 13, and XXVII., 10.) 21. s sounds like z.
[ The sounds of the figured vowels are explained at the top of the page, in the body of the work.
1. Every letter, or combination of letters, occurring in the pronunciation of a word or name, is to be pronounced with its proper English sound; e.g., ou is to be sounded as in our, sour, &c., and not like oo, as in tour, and some other words of French origin: g must be hard, as in get, give, &c.; ck, as in chill, choose, unless the h be marked as silent, in which case ch has the sound of k.
2. In the pronunciation of foreign European names, care should be taken not to allow å to fall into the third or broad sound of this vowel-an error to which American and English speakers are very prone-it would be much less a fault, generally speaking, to pronounce it like a in fat. It should, bowever, be observed, that a preceding the nasal n in French, is usually broad, almost like o in not. (See Int. XIX., 19, 20, and 21.)
A, in some names, appears to have a sound intermediate between å and i. • The k, in this and similar instances, is employed in order to enable the learner more readily to pronounce the vowel short, as in not: were it omitted, thus, ob-o, the inexperienced pupil might be in danger of pronouncing the o long, as in no, or indistincuy, as we often hear it in piano.
+ It is intended that the mere English scholar shall pronounce these letters with their proper English sound (See Introduction, VI.)
Thus the a in the penultimate syllable of ALABAMA, is somewhat longer than in fat, though not so broad as in far. It may be remarked that some orthoepists assign such a sound to a in certain English words, e.g. in fast.
3. When e and o end a syllable in the pronunciation of a word, they are always to be pronounced distinctly with their first sound (as in me or no.)
4. E is rarely figured when occurring in a syllable with the primary accent (IX.); in other cases e, and also the other vowels, are frequently thus marked, in order to guard against their being pronounced indistinctly.
5. O marked long (o), though often employed in English names, in order to show merely that this letter has its first sound, when it occurs in the pro. nunciation of foreign words or names, always indicates that the sound of the vowel is to be prolonged. In like manner, o indicates that this letter has a sound like o, in not, to be pronounced distinctly but very short.
6. The sound of u before a vowel, in Spanish words, is usually represented by w. Thus nuevo is pronounced nwa'-vo, which is nearly equiva. lent to noo-al-vo. In Italian, the u before a vowel appears to be sounded more distinctly : accordingly, we have indicated the pronunction of nuovu, duomo, by noo-o'-do, doo-o'-mo. In these cases, however, noo-0 and doo-o are to be pronounced almost in one syllable.
7. When two or more geographical names, with the same spelling, occur in succession, and the pronunciation of the first only is given, it is intended that all shall be pronounced alike.
9. The pronunciation of a name is distinguished from the name itself, by its not beginning with a capital. In examples like the following, BRES-LAU or bres'-lou, the latter spelling has reference to pronunciation only, while the former gives the true mode of writing the name and the pronunciation at the same time. Had we written Breslau, bres'-lau or bres'-lou, the same end would have been attained, but at the expense of brevity.
9. The number of syllables in a word or name is indicated by the hy. phens; e.g. SMYTHş not being divided by a hyphen, is to be pronounced in one syllable; pane'-ya in two: the e, in such syllables as pane, is silent, being only used to render the preceding a long, as in fate. In some few cases, how. ever, where a name of two or more syllables is necessarily familiar to all, we have not divided it by hyphens, nor indicated the pronunciation in any way; e. g., HENRY, WILLIAM, &c. In Latin names, the accent only has been marked.
10. When the right or left bank of a river is spoken of, the reader is supposed to be looking down the stream, or, in other words, going with the current.
11. It may be remarked, respecting the adjective and appellation of the inhabitants, derived from the names of places (see Preface, pages vi. and vii.), that, if the latter has man for its termination, in the singular, the plural is often expressed by the adjective; e. g., singular, FRENCHMAN; plural, tue FRENCH: singular, SCOTCHMAN; plural, The Scorci, &c. We sometimes hear also "THE SPANISH," instead of “THE SPANIARDS ;" but such expres. sions are not to be approved.
12. When no date is given, the population of places in this country has reference to the census of 1840; the population of Great Britain to the census of 1841, and that of France to the census of 1836.
13. When, immediately after a geographical name, there occur one or more names beginning with a capital, enclosed in a parenthesis, these are to be understood as different modes of writing the first, but if the word enclosed begins with a small letter, it is merely the pronunciation of the first name.