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Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; no, nôt; oo, as in good ;

AFGHANISTAN, åf-gån-is-tẢn', called also the KINGDOM OF Carool, a kingdom of S. Asia, between 28° and 36° N.Lat., and 59° and 72° E.Lon. Bounded on the N. by Toorkistan, E. by the kingdom of Lahore, S. by Beloochistan, and W. by Persia. Its actual limits, however, are very uncertain. The area is estimated by Balbi at near 150,000 sq. m.: the pop. at 4,200,000. A large portion of the country is mountainous, or consists of high table land. In character the Afghans resemble the Arabs; they are hospitable, brave, rapacious, and revengeful. Mahometanism is the prevailing religion. Cabool is the capital.-Adj. and inhab. Afghan, af-ghản', or AF-GHAUN'.

AFIUM-KARA-HISSAR. See KARA-HISSAR.

AFRAGOLA, åf-rå-gol-lå, a t. of Naples, 5 m. N. E. of the capital, remarkable for its manufacture of hats. Pop. estimated at 13,000. (B.)

Apl-R]-Cş, one of the five grand divisions of the globe; bounded on the W. by the Atlantic, N. by the Mediterranean, E. by the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, while its S. touches the great Southern Ocean. Its most northern point, Ras el Kroon, or “Cape Horn," is in about 37° 21' N. Lat. ; its most southern, Cape Agulhas (å-gooll-yås), or Cape Needles, is about 34° 50'S. Lat. The distance between these two points is nearly 5,000 m. Cape Guardafui, in Lon. 51° 22 E., is the most eastern point of Africa; and Cape Verde, in Lon. 17° 32' W., the most western. The distance between these capes is above 4,500 m. It contains an area of about 11,650,000 sq. m. (Hassel.) On the whole, Africa seems to be less liberally supplied with moisture than either of the other great divisions of the globe. But while in some parts it has immense tracts of burning desert, in others it is marshy and flooded with water. In those regions which are exempt from these extreraes, animal and vegetable life appear in remarkable variety and luxuriance. Of the central portion of this continent, little or nothing is known. -Adj. and inhab. Apl-RIC-AN.

Agde, ågd (Anc. Agatha), a t. of France, in the dep. of Heranlt, 28 m. S. W. of Montpellier. Lat. 43° 19'N:, Lon. 3° 28' E. Pop. 7,200.

Agen, å-zhanl* (Anc. Agin'num), a t. of France; cap. of the dep. of Lot and Garonne, on the river Garonne, 75 m. S. E. of Bordeaux. Lat. 44° 12' N., Lon. 0° 37' E. Pop. 12,000. (B.)

AGGERSHuus, åg'-gers-hoos', ą dist. in the S. part of Norway. Chris tiana is the capital.

AGNONE, ån-yol-na, a t. of Naples, celebrated for its copper manufac tures, which are considered the best in the kingdom. Lat. 41° 44' N, Lon. 14° 20' E. Pop. about 7,000. (B.)

Agosta, å-gos/tå, or AugusI-ra, a fortified seaport t. of Sicily, on the E. coast, 12 m. N. of Syracuse. Lat. 37° 14' N., Lon. 15° 24' E. Pop. estimated at 10,000. (B.)

AGRA, å-gra, an extensive prov. of Hindostan, bounded on the N. by

* This is a rare exception in which en, not preceded by i, has the sound of the French in. (See Int. XIX, 20 and 21.)

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. the province of Delhi, S. by Malwah, E. by Oude and Allahabad, and W. by Ajmeer, being about 250 m. in length and 180 in breadth. It lies between 25° 35' and 28° 18' N. Lat.

AGRA, called also AK-BAR-A-BÂD', the cap. of the above prov., and formerly the imperial seat of the Mogul goveroment. Three miles from this city is a superb mausoleum, probably the finest in the world, built by Shah Jeban, as the cemetery of his favourite wife. It is kept in excellent order by the British government, together with its beautiful garden of trees and flowering shrubs. The town itself is in a ruinous state. Lat. 27° 12' N., Lon. 78° 5' E.

AGRAM, ogl-rõm', an important t. of Croatia, on the r. Save. It is the residence of the ban or viceroy of Croatia, and has an academy, which may be regarded as a sort of university. Lat. 45° 50' N., Lon. 16° E. Pop., including that of its environs, 17,000. (B.)

ARANTA, å-hån/ta, a kingdom on the Gold Coast of Africa, extending from Ancobra to the Chama; bounded on the W. by Apollonia, and on the E. by the Fantee territories. It is the richest, and in every respect, the most improved district on this coast. (E. G.) It is now, like the whole of the Gold Coast, subject to the kingdom of Ashantee.

AHMEDABAD, å-med-a-bådl, an ancient city and fortress of Hindostan, in the prov. of Guzerat. Lat. about 23° N., Lon. 72° 40' E. Estimated pop. 100,000. (P. C.)

Ay-MED-NUGI-GUR, a strongly fortified city of Hindostan, in the prov. of Anrungabad. Lat. 19° 5' N., Lon. 74° 50 E. Pop, about 20,000, exclusive of the garrison. (M.)

AJACCIO, å-yảchl-cho, or AJAZZO, å-yåt-so, the chief t. of Corsica, remarkable for having been the birth place of Napoleon. Lat 41° 55 N., Lon. 8° 44' E. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

AICHSTADT. See EICHSTADT.

AJÁN, å-jån or å-zhản', the name of the E. coast of Africa from Cape Guardafui to Magadoxa.

Ain, ån, a small r. in the S. E. part of France, which fows into the Rhone.

Ain, a dep. in the S. E. part of France, bordering on Savoy and Switzerland. Pop. 346,188. (B.) Capital, Bourg.

AINTAB, ine'-tåb', a flourishing and well built t. of Syria, 60 m. N. of Aleppo. Pop. about 20,000. (B.)

AISNE, ane, a r. in the N. of France, which flows into the Oise.

AISNE, a dep. in the N. of France, intersected by the above river. Pop. 527,095. (B.) Capital, Laon.

Aix, aix, (Anc. A quæ Sex'tiæ, named from C. Sextius Calvinus, a Roman proconsul, by whom it was founded, 123 B. C.,) a handsome archiepiscopul city of France, formerly cap. of Provence, now in the dep. of the mouths of the Rhone, 17 m. N. of Marseilles. It has an acadé. mie universitaire, a public library of 80,000 volumes, and other literary institutions. The name of Aix is a corruption of the Latin Aque, which was given to the place on account of its warm medicinal springs. Lat. 43° 32 N., Lon. 5° 27' E. Pop. 23,000. (B.)

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; nd, not; öð, as in good;

Arx, a small t. of Savoy, celebrated for its warm baths, 12 m. N. of Chambéry. Lat. 45° 40' N., Lon. 5° 48' E. Pop. about 2,000.

AIX LA CHAPELLE, aix lå shå-pell!, (the Aachen, åå-ken, of the Germans, and Aquisgranum of the ancient Romans,) a t. of the Prussian states, in the grand duchy of the Lower Rhine. It was the second cap. of the empire of Charlemagne, and its name is derived from his having built a chapel there, which was frequently resorted to for bis own devotions. Its baths, seven in number, are much celebrated. It now belongs to Prussia. Distant 25 m. N. E. of Liege. Lat. 50° 47' N., Lon. 6° 5' E. Pop. 37,000. (B.)

AKERMAN, al-ker-mản', a t. and fortress of European Russia, on the Black Sea, at the mouth of the Dniester, important on account of its port, its commerce, and extensive salt works. Lat. 46° 12' N., Lon. 30° 23' E. Pop. estimated at 13,000. (P. C.)

AKHISSAR, åk -bis-sar', (i.e. " white castle,") a t. of Asiatic Turkey, on the site of the ancient Thyati/ra. Lat. 38° 50' N., Lon. 27° 55 É. Pop. estimated at 5,000. (M.)

AKHMYM or EK MIM, ak'-meem', (Anc. Chem'mis and Panopolis,) a 1. of Upper Egypt, on the E. bank of the Nile. Lat. 26° 40' N., Lon. 31° 50' E. Pop. about 10,000. (B.)

AKSHEHR, åk'-shaih'ri, (i.e. " white city,") an archiepiscopal t. of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, situated on the eastern base of the mountain Akshehr, from which the waters descend so as to form a rivulet in almost every street. From this town are exported to Smyrna, fine carpets, wool, wax, gum tragacanth, and galls. Lat. about 38° 20' N., Lon. 31° 40' E. Kinneir estimates the number of houses at 15,000. (B.)

AL'-A-BAM'-A,* one of the U. S., between 30° 10' and 35° N. Lat., and 85° and 88° 30' W. Lon.; bounded on the N. by Tennessee, E. by Georgia, S. by Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico, and W. by Mississippi; and divided into 50 counties.t Length from N. to S. about 330 m.; greatest breadth from E. to W. about 300 m. Area estimated at above 51,000 sq. m. Pop. 590,756, of whom 335,185 are whites, 2,039 free coloured persons, and 253,532 slaves. Alabama was admitted into the Union in 1819. Montgomery is the seat of government.

ALABAMA, a r. in Ala. formed by the union of the Coosa and Tallapoosa, and, flowing S. S. W., unites with the Tombigbee, to form the Mobile r.

AL-ACH-U-A, a co. in the N. eastern part of Florida, bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. Pop. 2,282. Co. t. Newnansville.

ALAND, ål-land, (Sw. ÅLAND, O-land,) an island of the Baltic, belong. ing to Russia, situated near the point of meeting of the Gulfs of Both

• See Observation 2, pages 51 and 52.

† Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Benton, Bibb, Blount, Butler, Chambers, Chero kee, Clair, St., Clarke, Coffee, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Dale, Dallas, De Kalb, Fayette, Franklin, Greene, Henry, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, Lowndes, Macon, Madison, Marengo, Marion, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe. Montgomery. Morgan, Perry, Pickens, Pike, Randolph, Russell, Shelby Sumter, Talladega, T'allapoosa, Tuscaloosa, Walker, Washington, Wilcox.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. nia and Finland, intersected by the parallel of 60° 20' N. Lat., and the 20tb meridian of E. Lon. It is 35 m. long and 23 m. broad, and conLains about 9,000 inhabitants. (M.)

ALAIS, &-lal, a t. of France, in the dep. of Gard. It is about 40 m. N. of Montpellier. Pop. 13,000. (B.) Lat. 44° 8' N., Lon. 4° 5' E.

ALASHEHR, à-lå-shaih'r', (Anc. Philadelphi/a: See ALEXANDRIA nole,) an important trading t. of Asiatic Turkey, on one of the principal roads to Smyrna, from which it is distant 85 m. E. Lat. 38° 25' N., Lon. about 28° 40 E. Pop. estimated at from 15,000 to 18,000. (M.)

ALBA, ål/-bå, a t. of Italy in Piedmont, on the Tanaro r., 32 m. S. S. E. of Turin. Pop. 7,000. (M.)

ALBACETE, ål-bå-tha-tà, a t. of Spain, in Murcia, remarkable as giving name to a canal in its vicinity. Lat. about 39° N., Lon. 1° 55' W. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

ALBA Julia. See KARLSBURG.

AL-BA'-NI-A,* (pronounced ål-bå-neel å by the modern Greeks ; Turk. Arnåoodlik or Arnaootleek,) a prov, of European Turkey, extending along the coast of the Adriatic and Ionian Sea. The limits of this country are not well defined; it appears, however, to extend from about 39° to 43° N. Lat. A chain of mountains near the 21st degree of E. Lon. may be considered to form its eastern boundary. It is 130 m. in length, and from 70 to 90 in breadth.— Adj. and inhab., AL-BAI-NI-AN and AL BANESE. (Turk. Arnaoot, arl-nå-oot.)

ALBANO, ål-bål-no, a t. of Italy, in Campagna di Roma, resorted to on pleasure excursions by the inhabitants of Rome in spring and har vest. It is 14 m. S. S. E. of Rome. Pop. 4,200. (M.)

ALBAN'S (ST.), aul-bạnz, a small t. of Hertfordshire, England, 20 m. N. N. W. of London. It derives its name from a magnificent monastery founded by Offa, in the eighth century, in honour of St. Alban, reputed the first British martyr. He is said to have suffered in the time of Diocletian, and to be entombed within the church.

ALBANY, aul-ba-ne, a co. in the E. part of N. Y., bordering on the Hudson r. Entire population 68,593.

ALBANY, the cap. of the above co., and of the state of New York, on the W. bank of the Hudson, 160 m. N. of the city of N. York, is, in point of population, trade, and wealth, the second city in the state. It is finely situated for commerce, at the head of sloop navigation on the Hudson, and communicates by canals with L. Erie, L. Ontario, and L Champlain. It is also connected by railroads with Utica, Rochester, and Buffalo, and with the principal towns of Massachusetts. Steamboats are constantly passing between Albany and New Yook. The first settlement of this city was made about the year 1612. (At. 42° 39' N., Lon. 73° 44' 49'' W. Pop. 33,721.

ALBANY, a r. of North America, which falls into James's Bay, near 52° N. Lat., and 83° W. Lon. This river has communication with a

* See Int. XI.

Fåte, får, fåll, fit; me, mét ; pine or pine, pin; nd, nðt; õõ, as in good, vast chain of small lakes lying in a S. W. direction, to the south end of L. Winnipeg. There is a fort of the same name on the river near its mouth.

AL'-BE-MARLE', a co. of Virginia, near the centre of the state. Pop. 22,924. Co. t. Charlottesville.

ALBEMARLE SOUND, on the coast of N. Carolina, in the N. E. part of the state ; about 60 m. long, and from 4 to 15 wide.

ALBUQUERQUE, ål-boo-kêr-ka, a t. of Estremadura, Spain. Lat. 39° 12' N., Lon. 6° 48' W. Pop. 5,500. (M.)

All-BY or ALBI (Fr. pronunciation, al'-bel,) an archiepiscopal t. of France; cap. of the dep. of Tarn, on the r. Tarn; is 44 m. N. E. of Toulouse. Lat. 43° 55' N., Lon. 2° 10' E. Pop. 11,800. (B.)

ALCALA DE HENARES, ål-cả-lal-da-en-å-rés, a t. of New Castile, Spain, 15 m. E. of Madrid, remarkable for its university, founded in 1499, by Cardinal Ximenes, which was formerly, after Salamanca, the seminary of the greatest repute throughout Spain. This town was the birth-place of Cervantes. Lat. 40° 27' N., Lon. 3° 25' W. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

ALCALA LA Real, al-cå-lål-lå-rd-all, a t. of Andalusia, Spain, 30 m. S. W. of Jaen. Lat. 37° 33' N., Lon. 4° 14' W. Pop. 4,374. (M.)

ALCAMO, áll-cả-mo, a t. of Sicily, 25 m. S. W. of Palermo. Pop. about 12,000. (B.)

Alcañiz, ål-cản-yeeth', a t. of Arragon, Spain, on the river Guadalupe. Lat. 41° 10' N., Lon. 0° 11' W. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

ALCANTARA, ål-cảnd-tå-rå, a t. of Estremadura, Spain, remarkable for a bridge over the Tagus, erected in the time of the emperor Trajan. Lat. 39° 40' N., Lon. 6° 43' W. Pop. 3,000. (B.)

ALCKMAER. See ALKMAAR.

AL-CO-NA (Negwegon), a co. in the E. N. E. part of Mich., bordering on L. Huron.

Alcoy, ål-col-e, a t. of Valencia, Spain, with flourishing manufactures, 20 m. N. of Alicante. Pop. estimated at 18,000. (B.)

ALDERNEY, aul-der-ne, an island in the English channel, belonging to Great Britain, about 10 m. in circuit, and 18 m. N. E. of Guernsey. Pop. 1,030.

ALEM-TEJO, å-leng-til-zho, or ALENTEJO, (i, e. “ beyond the Tagus,'') the largest of the provinces of Portugal; bounded on the N. by Estremadura and Beira, on the E. by the Spanish frontier, on the S. by Algarve, and on the W. by the Atlantic. It is about 150 m. in length, and nearly the same in breadth.

ALENÇON, al-en-son,* (Fr. pronunciation, -lån-s'N',) a manufacturing t. of France; cap. of the dep. of Orne; 110 m. S. W. of Paris. Lat. 48° 25' N., Lon. 0° 5' E. Pop. 14,000. (B.)

• This name, so celebrated in the history of England and of France, appears to have become thoroughly anglicized. Shakspeare and Southey always accentuate it on the penultima, as here given.

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