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Fate, får, fall, fåt; mé, mit; plne or pine, pin; no, nðt; õõ as in good; the r. Kennebec, about 52 m., in a direct line, N. N. E. of Portland. Lat. 44° 19' N., Lon. 69° 50' W. Pop. 5,314.
AUGUSTA, a t. of Ga., on the right bank of the Savannah r., about 80 m., in a straight line, E. of Milledgeville. Lat. 33° 28' N., Lon. 81° 54' W. Pop. 6,403.
AUGUSTA, a t. of Ky.; cap. of Brecken co. It has a college, under the direction of the Methodists, founded in 1825.
AUGUSTA, a co. in the centre of Virginia. Pop. 19,628. Co. t. Staunton.
AUGUSTINE, Sr., sent au-gus-teen', a city and port of entry of Florida; cap. of St. Jolin's co., on an inlet about 2 m. from the main ocean. The harbour is defended by a fort. This place is much resorted to during winter, by invalids from the northern states. Lat. 29° 48' 30" N., Lon. 81° 35' W. Pop. 2,459.
AURUNGABAD, o-rungl-ga-bid', a prov. of Hindostan, situated in the Dekkan.-Also, the cap. of the above, formerly called Gurka, bat, becoming a favourite residence of Aurungzebe (pronounced Ö-rungzeeb), it received from this circumstance its present name. The palace of that monarch, now in ruins, covers an extensive space. The whole city is rapidly falling to decay, but in 1825 was said still to contain a population of 60,000. (P. C.) Lat. 19° 54' N., Lon. 75° 33' E.
Ausl-TER-LITZ (Ger. pron. ousl-ter-lits), a t. of Austria, in Mora via, about 13 m. E. of Brünn, celebrated for a great victory obtained by Napoleon over the emperors of Austria and Russia, in 1805. Pop. about 2,000. (B.)
AUSTRALASIA. See OCEANICA.
AUS-TRA-LJ-A. (See Int. XI.) A term sometiines employed like AugTRALASIA, to designate the fifth grand division of the globe, but more generally restricted to that portion of Oceanica which is situated immediately $. and S. E. of Malaisia, between 1° N. 55° S. Lat., and 110° and 180° E. Lon., including New Holland, (the Australian continent,) the islands of New Zealand, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, the Solo mon Islands, New Britain, New Ireland, Papua or New Guinea, besides many smaller islands.-Adj. AUS-TRA-LI-AN.
AUSTRALIAN CONTINENT, or New HOLLAND, is situated in the South Sea, between 10° 30' and 39° N. Lat., and 1139 and 153° 20' E. Lon. Length, from E. to W., about 2,400 m.: greatest breadth, from N. to S., near 2,000. Area estimated at 3,500,000 sq. m. New Holland is distinguished from all other parts of the globe by the general character of its plants and animals, as well as by the nature of the country. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of this continent is the total absence of permanently navigable rivers. The Murray, which, with its different affluents, is estimated to drain a surface of 400,000 sq. m., discharges its waters into the sea by a mouth so miserably small as to be overlooked by the first explorers of this portion of the Australian coast. There are mountains whose summits are covered with perpetual snow but a very large portion of the country appears to be flat land, which is sometimes marshy and flooded with water, and at other times so parched ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. as to be a perfect desert. The aboriginal inhabitants of this continent are classed in the saine grand division of the human race with the African negro, but appear to be decidedly inferior both in their physical constitution, and in their intellectual and moral faculties. They are the only people, of whom we have any knowledge, that go completely naked.—İnhab. NEW HOLLANDER, or AUSTRALIAN.
Ausl-TRI-A (Ger. Oestreich, Öst/-rike), an empire of Europe, lying between 420 and 51° N. Lat., and 8° 30' and 26° 50' E. Lon.; bounded on the N. W. and N. by Saxony and Prussia, N. E. and E. by the republic of Cracow and by the Russian and Turkish provinces, S. by Turkey, the Gulf of Venice, the territories of the Pope, Modena, and Parma, and W. by the Sardinian States, Switzerland, and Gerinany. The length is estimated at 870, the breadth at 690 m. The superficial extent, according to Balbi, is about 259,300 sq. m. The pop. in 1826 was estimated by the same writer at 32,000,000. The empire of Austria is composed of the kingdoms of Bohemia, Galicia, Hungary, Illyria, Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia, and the governments of Lower and Upper Austria, Styria, Trieste, Tyrol, Transylvania, the Military Frontier, and Austrian Italy, or the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, besides some smaller districts, such as Great and Little Cumania, &c. These will be treated of under their respective heads. The name Oestreich, which signifies “ eastern empire," arose from this territory having been the eastern part of the dominions of Charlemagne. The area of Austria at that time scarcely exceeded that of the present archduchy. Vienna is the capital.-Adj. and inbab. Aus'-TRI-AN.
AUSTRIA, ARCHDUCHY OF, which constitutes the principal part of the hereditary dominions of the house of Austria, is bounded on the N. by Bohemia and Moravia, E. by Hungary, S. by Styria, Illyria, and Tyrol, and W. by Tyrol and Bavaria. Area about 14,891 sq. m. It is divided into Lower and Upper Austria. The former occupies the eastern, the latter the western portion of the archduchy.
AU-TAU-G», a co. in the central part of Ala., N. of, and bordering on the Alabama r. Pop. 14,342. Co. t. Washington
Autun, Ó'-tun', a city of France, on the r. Arroux, in the dep. of the Saône and Loire, 164 m. S. E. of Paris. This town existed before the Roman conquest under the name of Bibrac/te; after the time of Augustus, it was called Augustodu'num, of which Autun is a corruption. A number of interesting ruins may be seen here. Lat. 46° 57' N., Lon. 4° 18' E. Pop. 10,000.
AUVERGNE, Ö-vern! or '-vairñ, formerly a prov. of France, now divided into the deps. of Cantal and Pay de Dôme. The name is derived from the Arverni, an ancient nation who inhabited this part of Gaul.
AUXERRE, Ó'-sair', (Anc. Autissiodu/rum,) a city of France; cap. of the dep. of Yonne, on the r. Yonne, 92 m. S. E. of Paris. Lat. 47° 48' N, Lon. 3° 34' E. Pop. 10,989. (B.) AUXONNE, Öx'-onn', or AUSSONNE, Ö' sonn', a fortified t. of France, in
Fåte, får, fäll, fåt; me, mét; plne or pine, pin; nb, nðt; öð as in good, the dep. of Côte d'Or, on the Saône, 19 m. S. E. of Dijon. Pop. in 1832, about 5,000. (P. C.) Ava. See BIRMA.
Avallon, &'-vål-lon', a t. of France, in the dep. of the Yonne, 120 m. S. E. of Paris. Pop. above 5,000. (P. C.)
AVEIRO, å-vale-ro, a city of Portugal, in the prov. of Beira. Lat. 40° 38' N., Lon. 8° 38' W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)
AVELLA, &-vell-lå, a t. in the kingdom of Naples, 20 m. N. E. of the capital. Near to it are the ruins of the ancient Abella, from whicb its name has been derived. Pop. 5,000. (M.)
AVELLINO, å-vel-leel-no, a manufacturing and commercial t. of Naples : cap. of the prov. of Principato Ultra, 30 m. E. by N. of Naples. Lat. 40° 55' N., Lon. 14° 45' E. Pop. 13,000. (B.)
AVENCHES, a'-vånsh', (Lat. Aven'ticum,) a little t. of Switzerland, about 3 m. from the Lake of Morat, and 20 m. W. S. W. of Bern, remarkable for the Roman antiquities found in its vicinity.
AVERNO, å-vềRI-no, (Anc. Averlnus,) a celebrated lake in the vicinity of Naples, abont 2. m. N. W. of Pozzuoli. It is circular, and about 14 m. in circumference.
Aversa, å-vềrl-så, a t. in the kingdom of Naples, 12 m. N. by W. of the capital. It contains a large foundling hospital, and a lunatic asylum, which ranks among the best establishments of the kind in Europe. Lat. 40° 57' N., Lon. 14° 11' E. Pop. estimated at 16,000. (B.)
AVESNES, å-vain', a fortified t. of France, in the dep. of Nord, 123 m. N. E. of Paris. Pop, about 4,000. (P. C.)
AVEYRON, å-va-ron!, a r. in the s. of France, flowing into the Garonne.
AVEYRON, a dep. in the S. of France, on the above r. Pop. 370,951. (B.) Capital, Rodez.
AVE ANO, å-vêt-sål-no, a t. of Naples, in the prov. of Abruzzo Ultra, about 20 m. nearly S. of Aquila. Pop. about 6,000. (B.)
AVIGNON, av-een-yon, or å-veen'-YON, (Anc. Avelnio) a celebrated city of France; cap, of the dep. of Vaucluse, on the left bank of the Rhone, just above the mouth of the r. Durance. Avenio was a very ancient city; it appears to have been a town of some importance before the Roman conquest, and holds a conspicuous place in the history of the middle ages. About the year 1308, Pope Clement V., himself a native of France, removed his court from Rome to Avignon, which continued to be the papal residence till 1376, when Gregory XI. left it, to return to Rome. "It afterwards became the residence of the anti-popes Clement VII. and Benedict XIII. Lat. 43° 57' N., Lon. 4° 48' E. Pop. 31,000: in the 14th century it amounted to 100,000. (B.)
Avila, ål-ve-lå,* a t. of Old Castile, Spain; cap. of a prov. of the same name, with a university. Lat. 40° 42' N., Lon. 4° 50' W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)
* "Lerma 'the generous,' AVILA 'the proud.'”–Rogers' Voyage of Columbus
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; Th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. AVLONA, åy-lol-nå, or VALONA, (Anc. Au'lon,) a town of Albania, on a golf 10 which it gives its name, formed by the celebrated Acrocerau nian promontory. Lat. 40° 29' N., Lon. 19° 26' E. Pop. 5,000. (B.)
Avon, d-von, the name of several small rivers of Great Britain. The principal and most interesting is that which rises at a source called Avon-well, in Northamptonshire, and, flowing by the village of Stratford, the birth-place of Shakspeare, empties itself into the Severn, in Gloucestershire, after a course of about 100 in.
Av -OY-ELLES', a parish of La., on the S. side of the Red r. Pop. 6,616. Seat of justice, Marksville.
AVRANCHES, &v'-rånsh!, (Anc. In gena, afterwards Abrincaltui and Abrin'ce,) a city of France, in the dep. of Manche, 195 m. pearly W. from Paris. Lat. 48° 41' N., Lon. 1° 25' E. Pop. 7,000. (P. C.)
A-WATSI-KẠ or Av-ATCH'-KẠ, a bay on the E. coast of Kamtchatka. Also the name of a r. which flows into this bay, and of a small village situated at its mouth.
AWE, Locu, a fresh water lake of Scotland, in the co. of Argyle. It is about 24 m. long, while its average breadth is only about 1 m.
Ax-oom', written also Axoum and Axum, (Gr. Açovues,) a t. of Abyssinia; formerly cap. of a powerful kingdom of this name, which appears to have extended its dominions over a great part of Abyssinia, a part of Arabia, and even to have received tribute from the Byzantine emperors. There are at this place several remains of antiquity, which show that the Axumites were highly skilled in the art of sculpture, and acquainted also with the Greek language. The town at present contains about 600 houses. (B.) Lat. 14 7' N., Lon. between 38o and 39° E.
AYAMONTE, i-yå-mon-tà, a fortified t. of Spain, in the kingdom of Seville. Lat. 37° 12' N., Lon. 7° 14' W. Pop. 6,347. (P. C.)
AYASOOLOOK, 8-yå-soo-look!, (Fr. spelling Ayasalouk,) a miserable village of Asia Minor, on the site of the ancient Ephesus, with a mosque, castle and aqueduct, constructed out of the ruins of that once magnificent city. Here have been discovered, among other antiquities, the remains of the great temple of Diana, which is mentioned in the 19th chapter of the Acts. Lat. 37° 55' N., Lon. 27° 20' E.
AYLESBURY, ailz-ber-re, a t. of Buckinghamshire, England, on the road from London to Warwick, 38 m. from London. It is a very ancient place, and is said to have been one of the strongest garrisons of the Britons, in their struggle against the Saxons. Pop. of the borough, with an area of about 5 sq. m., 5,429.
Ayr, air, a r. of Scotland, which rises in Ayrshire, and, after a course of about 30 m. nearly due W., falls into the sea at the t. of Ayr, where its estuary forms a fine harbour.
Aye, a sea-port t. of Scotland, cap. of Ayrshire, on the above r., near its mouth; 67 m. S. W. of Edinburgh. 'Entire pop. of the parish, 8,264.
AFR-SHIRE, a co. in the S. W. of Scotland, bordering on the sea. Pop. 164,356.
Fate, får, fall, fât; mė, mét ; pine or pine, pin; nò, nót; oo, as in good;
AZERBAYJAN, dz-er-bil-jản', a prov. in the N. part of Persia, lying around L. Ooroomeeyeh. Tabreez is the capital.
Azl-or or Azov, (Anc. Pallus Mæotis,) a sea of Russia, forming a part of the boundary between Europe and Asia, and connected with tiņ2/2Ẹ22/?2?Â?Â2Ò2ÂÒti2?Â2Ò2ÂòÂ§Â?22/22?Â§Â§Â§\ūtiffimēģ2ūti/2ņēmē?2?Â2âÒ2Â§âti? 200 m.; the breadth varies exceedingly, but perhaps, on an average, inay be estimated at about 70 m. The only considerable river which it receives is the Don.
AZORES, azl-orz,* or az-orz/, (Port. Açores, å-sol-ris,) called also the Western Islands, are situated in the Atlantic, about 800 m. W. of Portugal. They consist of nine islands, in three distinct groups, lying in the direction of W. N. W. and E. S. E., and extending about 330 in. The north-western group contains the small islands of Corvo and Flores; the central, Terceira, St. George, Pico, Fayal, and Graciosa the south-eastern, St. Michael and St. Mary. They are included between the parallels of 36° 57' and 40° N. Lat., and the meridians of 25°,and 31° 15' W. Lon. The several islands will be treated of under their respective names. As these islands, when first discovered by the Portuguese, were entirely destitute of human inhabitants, as well as of beasts, they called them Açores (the plural of acor, a hawk or bird of prey), from the number of this kind of birds found here.—Adj. and inhab. Az-o'-RI-AN.
BAI-BEL-MAN-DEL, (see Int. XII.,) or, more correctly, BAB-EL-MANDEB, the strait which connects the Red Sea with the Indian Ocean, lying between Arabia and Abyssinia. The width of this strait is estimated at about 16 m.
BACCHIGLIONE, båk-keel-yol-na, a r. in the Venetian States, which rises in the Alps, and, flowing S. E., passes through the t. of Vicenza, and afterwards by the walls of Padua, 30 m. below which it enters the Adriatic at Brondolo. Its entire course is about 90 m.
BAD-AGI-RY, a t. on the Slave Coast of Guinea, cap. of a small kingdom of the same name, about 6° 15' N. Lat., and 2° 50' E. Lon. Pop. estimated at 10,000. (P. C.)
BADAJOS, båd-a-hocel, (Sp. Badajoz, bå-Då-HÒth'; Lat. Pax Augus! ta,) a fortified t. of Spain, cap. of Estremadura, on the Guadiana. The bridge over the Guadiana, 1,874 feet in length, is one of the finest in Europe. Lat 38° 52' N., Lon. 6° 48' W. Pop. 13,000. (B.)
• This accentuation, though perhaps not the most prevalent, is sanctioned by the general tendency of our language, (see Int. XII., Obs. 2.) as well as by the practice of many of the best speakers. The second pronunciation may be objected to as being neither native nor English. If we would pronounce like the natives we must follow the example of Milton, and divide the name into three syllables (See Paradise Lost, Book IV., line 592.) The authority of Cowper is in favour of the first pronunciation.
_“Those Ausonia claims, Levantine regions these: the AZORES send Their jessamine."
The Task, Book 15.