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ligion, so wisely exempted from civil jurisdiction; to preserve, in their full energy, the other salutary provisions in behalf of private and personal rights, and of the freedom of the press; to observe economy in public expenditures; to liberate the public resources by an honorable discharge of the public debts; to keep, within the requisite limits, a standing military force, always remembering that an armed and trained militia is the firmest bulwark of republics—that without standing armies their liberty can never be in danger, nor with large ones safe; to promote, by authorized means, improvements friendly to agriculture, to manufactures, and to external as well as internal commerce; to favor, in like manner, the advancement of science and the diffusion of information, the best aliment to true liberty; to carry on the benevolent plans which have been so meritoriously applied to the conversion of our aboriginal neighbors from the degradation and wretchedness of savage life, to a participation of the improvements of which the human mind and manners are susceptible in a civilized state. As far as sentiments and intentions such as these can aid the fulfilment of my duty, they will be a resource which cannot fail me. But the source to which I look for the aids which alone can supply

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my deficiencies, is in the well tried intelligence and virtue of my fellow-citizens, and in the counsels of those representing them in the other departments associated in the care of the national interests. In these, my confidence will, under every difficulty, be best placed, next to that which we have all been encouraged to feel in the guardianship and guidance of that Almighty Being whose power regulates the destiny of nations, whose blessings have been so conspicuously dispensed to this rising republic, and to whom we are bound to address our devout gratitude for the past, as well as our fervent supplications and best hopes for the future."

The citizens of these United States were blessed with the virtue, the fortitude, and the perseverance to achieve their independence as a nation; their patriotism and valor, both by sea and on land, brought them, with increased honor, through the second war of independence," and through all the trials and difficulties by which they have, from time to time, been environed, both as respects their foreign and domestic relations; and it is only necessary for them to have lightas regards the fundamental law, erations of the Government, to enable them to judge of the fidelity of those whom they periodically en

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trust with the power which alone belongs to themselves as a nation of freemen, the proper use and application of which power, is so vitally necessary to the preservation of their own liberties and best interests, and the perpetuity of our institutions.

“Light, true light in the mind,” says Locke,"is or can be nothing else but the evidence of the truth of any proposition; and if it be not a self-evident proposition, all the light it has, or can have, is from the clearness and validity of those proofs upon

which it is received. To talk of any other light in the understanding, is to put ourselves in the dark, or in the power of the Prince of Darkness, and, by our own consent, to give ourselves up to delusion; for, if strength of persuasion be the light which must guide us, I ask how shall any one distinguish between the delusions of Satan and the inspirations of the Holy Ghost.?")

Subtleties and authoritative corruscations have been repudiated by pure and true hearted sages and statesmen. The advice of some of the most profound of whom, has been characterized by the simplicity of manner and of language in which they have borne witness to truth. Judge Story has remarked, that “upon subjects of Government, it has always appear

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ed to me, that metaphysical refinements are out of place. A constitution of government is addressed to the common sense of the people, and never was designed for trials of logical skill, or visionary speculation."

Of a constitution so wisely contrived, so strongly raised, and so highly finished, it is hard to speak with that praise which is justly and severely its due: the thorough and attentive contemplation of it will furnish its best panegyric. To sustain, to repair, to beautify this noble pile, is a charge intrusted principally to the people and their constitutional representatives, in all the branches of the Government.

If honor and confidence, in a pre-eminent degree, are, with a portion of their power, conferred by the people upon the Chief Executive Magistrate, the guardianship of the national honor is in no less a degree conferred upon their representatives in the two Houses of Congress, the intrinsic dignity of whose official character, in every moral point of view, transcends that of every other legislative assembly, in so much as our Constitution excels that of every other human government; and while the Constitution, practically animated by the people, thus confers honor and dignity. upon Congress, to them it is given to stand by the

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Constitution, in spirit and in truth, inflexibly maintaining its principles—the principles of union, of liberty, of justice, of domestic tranquillity, of common defence, and of the general welfare. The Constitution and the Government, thus reciprocally animating and being animated, illustrates the beau ideal of good government-one of the choicest gifts of God to man.

The protection of the liberty of the United States of America is a duty which they owe to themselves, who enjoy it; to their ancestors, who transmitted it down; and to their posterity, who will claim at their hands this, the best birthright, the noblest inheritance, of mankind.

To conclude, in the language of Judge Story

“If, upon a closer survey of all the powers given by the Constitution, and all the guards upon their exercise, we shall perceive still stronger inducements to fortify this conclusion, and to increase our confidence in the Constitution, may we not justly hope, that every honest American will concur in the dying expression of Father Paul, ‘may it be perpetual !'”

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