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America,” published in London in 1849, by Edward Edwards, Esq., of the British Museum, we gather the following information and statistical tables. Approximate Tabular View of the Libraries containing 10,000 Volumes or

upwards, accessible to the Public, in the several States of Europe ; also, the whole Number of Libraries in said States, and the Number of Volumes and of Manuscripts contained therein in 1848.

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No. of Vols to every

100 of the populat'n of no .

No. of Whole Aggregate

Vol. number of num

umes Volumes ber of

of Libraof Printed

MSS. Books in ries.

in 1848.

1848.

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Anhalt,

1
11,479 20,000 170 2

25,700 Austrian States,

49 1,443,187 2,408,000

167
49

2,408,000 41,103 Baden,

5 72,960 404,300 540 5 404,300 3,170 Bavaria,

18 373,337| 1,263,500

339 18

1,268,500 30,156 Belgium,

14

538,561 509,100 95 14 509,100 20,728 Bremen, 2 42,000 36.000 86 2

36.000 Brunswick,

8.500 200,000 2,353 6 223,000 4,580 Cracow, 2 37.000 52,000 141

52,000 2,2101 Deninark,

5 156,692 647.000

412

647,000 3,200 France, 109 3,183,120 4,092,695 129 186

4,510,295 119,119 Frankfort-on-the-Maine, 1 66.244 62,000 94 1

62,000 550 Great Britain and Ireland, * 34 3,344,916 1,771,493

53 34 1,771,493 62,149 Hamburg, *

6 128,000 200,367 148 6 200,367 5,000 Hanover,

5 61,700 492,000 813 5 492,000 5,743 Hesse,

88,700 265,000 299 5 273,200 400 Hesse-Darmstadt,

2 30,300 280,000

924 3 282,600 5,268 Hildburghausen,

10,200 12,000 118 1 12,000 Holland,

349,010 219,000

7 228,310 12,000 Lippe-Detmold,

2,500 21,500

860

21,500

1001 Lubec, 2 26.000 52,000 200 2 52,000

4001 Lucca,

24,092 25,000

104

25,000 Luxemburg,

1 12,000
19,600 163

19.600 162 Mecklenburg,

2 26,634 84,000 315 3 85,400 Mecklenburg-Strelitz,

1
4,500 50,000 1,111 1

50,000 Modena,

1
27,000 90,000 333

90,000 3,000 Naples and Sicily, 8 550,453 413,000 66

413,000 3,000 Nassau, 1 15,000 50.000 333

50,000 Oldenburg,

1 5,564 60,000 1,078 1 60,000 Papal States,

15 358.600 953,000

266 16 957,000 33,495 Parma, 3 71,500 146,000 204 3

146,000 Portugal,

7 363,000 276,000 76 7 276,000 7,587 Prussian States,

44
989,613 2,008,350 200 53

2,040,450 15,417 Reuss,

1

5,000 Rudolstadt,

1

4,000 46,000 1,150 1 46,000 Russian Empire, 12 1,063,823 852,090

12 852,090 21,604 Sardinia and Piedmont,

9 302,497

286,000 94 11 297,000 4,500 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha,

3

35,579 247,000 618 5 247,000 5,000 Saxe-Meiningen,

1

6,000 32,000 533 1 32,000 Saxe-Weimar,

2 17.029 180,000 1,057 2 180,000 2,000 Saxony, *

9 132.927 570,500 417 9 570,500 7,950

17 Spain,

630.359 697.550 106 27 711,050 8,262 Sweden and Norway,

8 120,525 353,000 309 8 353,000 9,300 Switzerland,

13 137,0831 480,300 350 13 480,300 12,734 Tuscany, 10 153,466 401,000 261 10

401,000 30,000 Waldeck Pyrmont,

1
1,500 30,000 2,000

1 30,000 Wurtemberg,

427,000 629 6 433,000 5,2001 ward Edwards, Esq., of the British Museum. Third Edition, corrected, with Additional Tables, and Illustrated Plans. London. 1849. Folio, pp. 70.

5 67.999

* In these states the enumeration embraces libraries of less extent than 10,000 volumes. | For the total population of the several states, see“ European States," near end of volume.

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The principal libraries of the several capital cities of Europe, in the order of their magnitude, in 1848 stood as follows:

Volumes. *Paris, National Library, 824,000)* Milan, Brera Library, . . 170,000 *Munich, Royal do. 600,000 Paris, St. Genevieve do. 150,000 Petersburg, Imperial do. 446,000 Darmstadt, Grand Ducal do. 150,000 *London, British Museum do. 435,000 * Florence, Magliabecchian do. 150,000 *Copenhagen, Royal do. 412,000 *Naples, Royal do.

150,000 *Berlin, Royal do.

410,000 *Brussels, Royal do. 133,500 *Vienna, Imperial do.. 313,000 Rome, Casanate do.

120,000 * Dresden, Royal do.. 300,000 * Hague, Royal do.

100,000 Madrid, National do. 200,000 Paris, Mazarin do.

100,000 Wolfenbuttel, Ducal do. 200,000 Rome, Vatican do.

100,000 Stutgard, Royal do. 187,000 * Parma, Ducal do.

100,000 Paris, Arsenal do.

180,000 The oldest of the great libraries of printed books is probably that of Vienna, which dates from 1440, and is said to have been open to the public as early as 1575. The town library of Ratisbon (in Bavaria) dates from 1430 ; St. Mark's Library at Venice, from 1468; the town library of Frankfort, from 1484; that of Hamburg, from 1529; of Strasburg (France), from 1531 ; of Augsburg (Bavaria), from 1537; those of Berne and Geneva, from 1550; and that of Basel or Basle, from 1564.

The Royal Library of Copenhagen was founded about 1550. In 1671, it had 10,000 volumes; in 1748, about 65,000; in 1778, 100,000 ; and in 1820, 300,000. The National Library of Paris was founded in 1595, and was made public in 1737. In 1640, it had about 17,000 volumes; in 1684, 50,000 ; in 1775, 150,000 ; in 1790, 200,000. The library of the British Museum was founded in 1753, and made public in 1757, when it contained about 40,000 volumes. In 1800, it had about 65,000 volumes ; in 1823, 125,000; in 1836, nearly 240,000. The whole of the difference between 1836 and 1848 does not arise from the actual increase of the col. lection ; a portion of the difference results from the fact, that many thousand tracts, formerly in volumes or cases, have been separately bound, and are now enumerated as distinct volumes. The rest of the increase is mainly ascribable to donations. Of its 435,000 volumes, at least 200,000 have been presented or bequeathed. The growth of the Copenhagen Library arises mainly from judicious purchases, at favorable opportunities. The increase of the National Library of Paris, since 1790, is in a great measure to be ascribed to the Revolution. Special instructions were usually given, that the officers of the library should have unlimited power of selection from the many libraries at the disposal of the government upon the suppression of the monasteries and convents, and the confiscation of the property of rebels and emigrants.

* These libraries are entitled by law to a copy of every book published within the states to which they respectively belong.

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Volumes.

The chief University Libraries in 1848 ranked as follows:-
Volumes.

Volumes. *Göttingent Univ. Library, 360,000 Vienna University Library, 115,000 Breslau University 250,000 Leipsic

112,000 Oxford,t Bodleian 220,000 Copenhagen“

110,000 Tubingen University 200,000 *Turint

110,000 Munich 200,000 Louvain

105,000 Heidelberg

200,000 Dublin | Trinity Coll.“ 104,239 Cambridge t Public 166,724 *Upsal University

100,000 Bologna University 150,000 Erlangen

100,000 *Praguet 130,000Edinburgh

90,854 The date of the foundation of some of the libraries is as follows: Turin, 1436; Cambridge, 1484 ; Leipsic, 1544 ; Edinburgh, 1582 ; the Bodleian, 1597. The library of the University of Salamanca (24,000 vol. umes) is said to have been founded in 1215.

The following table shows the whole number of printed volumes in the public libraries of some of the principal cities of Europe, in 1848.

Volumes.

Volumes. Aberdeen, 46,000 Dublin,

143,654 Munich, 800,000 Amsterdam, 16,000 Edinburgh, 288,854 Naples, 290,000 Antwerp, 15,000 Florence, 299,000/Oxford,

273,000 Barcelona, 45,000 Genoa,

120,000 Padua,

177,000 Berlin, 460,000 Glasgow, 80,096 Paris,

1,474,000 Bologna, 233,000 Göttingen, 350,000 Prague,

198,000 Bremen, 36,000 Halle, 121,000 Rome,

465,000 Breslau, 370,000 Hamburg, 200,367 Seville,

58,000 Brussels, 143,500 Leipsic, 192,000 Stockholm, 82,000 Buda-Pesth, 68,000 Lisbon,

98,000 St. Petersburg, 595,900 Cambridge, 261,724 London, 490,500 Stutgard,

197,000 Cologne, 109,300 Lyons,

82,000 Venice,

137,000 Copenhagen, 557,000 Milan,

250,000 Vienna, 453,000 Dresden, 340,500 Moscow, 66,000/Weimar, 110,000

The average annual sum allotted to the support of the National Library at Paris is £ 16,575; the Royal Library at Brussels, £ 2,700; of Munich, about £2,000; of Vienna, £1,900; of Berlin, £3,745 ; of Copenhagen, £1,250 ; of Dresden, £500 ; of Darmstadt, £2,000; of the British Museum prior to 1835, less than £8,000, and of this sum only £ 1,135, on an average, was expended for printed books. In 1846 and 1847, £10,000 was annually appropriated for the purchase of printed books, which sum was in 1848 reduced to £8,500. The whole sum expended in the purchase of printed books for the British Museum, including maps and musical works, from its foundation in 1753 to Dec. 25, 1847, was £ 102,446, 18s. 5d.; for manuscripts, £42,940 11s. 10d.; prints and drawings, £ 29,318 48.; antiquities, coins, and medals, £125,257 0s. 9d.; specimens in all branches of natural history, £ 43,599 7s. 8d. ; in all, £ 344,562 2s. 8d.

* These are lending libraries.

† These are legally entitled to copies of all works published in the states to which they respectively belong.

The average number of volumes added annually to the National Library of Paris is stated to be 12,000; to that of Munich, 10,000; of Berlin, 5,000 ; of Vienna, 5,000; of St. Petersburg, 2,000; to the Ducal Library of Parma, 1,800; to the Royal Library of Copenhagen, 1,000; to the British Museum under the special grant, about 30,000 volumes, usually comprising about 24,000 separate works.

The publication of Mr. Edwards contains the sums granted annually, from 1823 to 1848 inclusive, by Parliament, and by the French Chambers, for the support of public libraries and museums; - also the expenditure in detail, upon the library of the British Museum, from 1753 to 1848 inclusive.

We give below the summary by Mr. Edwards of the public libraries in America, for the year 1846. The summary takes no account of libraries containing less than 5,000 volumes. We hope soon, from the publications of the Smithsonian Institute, and from information furnished by correspondents, to give later and fuller information :

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*

XVI. STATISTICS OF COAL. The following tables comprise many particulars of interest in relation to coal. They are derived mainly from the valuable work on this subject by Richard C. Taylor, Esq.* The very general substitution of coal for wood as fuel, and its employment in the manufacture of iron and in the production of steam and gas, have, of late years, given an amazing impulse to the trade in this article. Thirty years ago, the coal trade in this country was limited to three hundred and sixty-five tons of anthracite, brought from the Lehigh mines to Philadelphia; now, the annual production of anthracite greatly exceeds three millions of tons. This rapid increase is not confined to the United States. In the twenty years from 1825 to 1845, the exports of coal from Great Britain increased 713 per cent.; the production of coal in France, 181 per cent., in Belgium, 111 per cent., in Prussia, 124 per cent,

Indeed, so great and various have the uses of coal become, that, in connection with iron, it must now be considered one of the most important elements of a nation's commercial and manufacturing prosperity. It is in

* Statistics of Coal, by Richard C. Taylor. Philadelphia. 1848.

8vo. pp. 754.

teresting, therefore, to ascertain and compare the extent and quality of the coal deposits of various countries. Unfortunately, there exist innumerable deficiencies and discrepancies in the statistical materials at command. In some countries, however, as in France and Belgium, measures are taken to register every important particular in mining operations. It is much to be regretted, that the same fulness of detail is unattainable in Great Britain and in this country. The work of Mr. Taylor, by exhibiting the importance of these details, will, it is hoped, do much towards securing so desirable a result.

In the distribution of coal the United States are highly favored. Exclusive of Texas, New Mexico, California, and Oregon, all of which are known to contain coal, the area of coal formations in the United States is estimated by Mr. Taylor to be 133,132 square miles, while the total area of these formations in Great Britain, Ireland, and the British Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Cape Breton, and Newfoundland, is, according to the same authority, less than 30,000 square miles. Nearly the whole of this vast area is occupied by bituminous coal. The total area of the anthracite region of Pennsylvania is estimated at less than 400 square miles. Yet more tons of fuel are now annually produced from this small area, than from the almost boundless fields of bituminous coal scattered over twelve States. The railroads and canals built to develop the wealth of this region had cost in 1847 about $ 40,000,000. Anthracite seems, indeed, to have superseded bituminous coal on nearly the whole of our Atlantic seaboard. The freedom from smoke of anthracite is alone sufficient to account for the preference given to it for domestic purposes. In steam navigation it admits of much closer stowage, and is not liable to spontaneous combustion, as is the case with bituminous coal. In war-steamers there is this additional advantage, that no smoke betrays the motions of steamers burning anthracite, whereas steamers burning fat, bituminous coal can be “ tracked ” seventy miles, before their hulls become visible, by the black smoke trailing along the horizon.* The preference given to anthracite may be illustrated by a comparison of the importations of coal into Boston, in the years 1840 and 1847, which stand thus:

1840.

1847.
Pennsylvania Anthracite, 73,847 tons. 258,093 tons.
American Bituminous Coal,
Foreign

49,997 66

65,203 " Thus, while in 1840 the excess of anthracite was but 20,551 tons, in 1847 it was 188,336 tons.t

In regard to the red-ash and white-ash varieties of anthracite mentioned in Table VIII.," it seems established,” says Mr. Taylor, “ that, for closed furnaces for warming houses, the white-ash variety, being the most compact, dense, and slow-burning, is more durable” than the softer red-ash coal, and consequently preferable. “In open grates,” he adds, “ for warming apartments, the latter is decidedly preferred.”

3,2996

4,554 "

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