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such per cent. as Congress shall grant on the sale of lands in this State, shall be a fund, the interest of which, and the rents of unsold lands, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of common schools. The proceeds and income of certain lands are set apart for the support of a University.

Being knowingly concerned in any way in a duel forfeits the right to vote, and to be elected to office. The credit of the State shall not be given or loaned to any individual or corporation. The real and personal property of the wife before marriage, and that acquired after by gift, devise, or descent, shall be her separate property. The Legislature shall protect by law from forced sale a certain portion of the homestead and other property of all heads of families. A plurality of votes shall constitute a choice, where not otherwise directed by the constitution.

No State debt or debts, amounting singly or in the aggregate with previous debts to $ 300,000, shall be contracted, except in case of war, unless such debt be authorized for some single work by a law, which shall provide means exclusive of loans for the payment of the annual interest, and of the principal in twenty years, which law shall be irrepealable until the debt and interest are paid, and shall not take effect until it shall have received a majority of all the votes cast at a general election by the people, and have been published at least three months before such election in one newspaper in each judicial district throughout the State.

Amendments to the constitution must be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each of the two houses; be entered on the journals with the yeas and nays; be referred to the Legislature then next to be chosen, and be published three months previous to such election; be passed by a majority of all the members elected to this Legislature, be then submitted to the people, and, if approved by a majority of the qualified voters, they shall become a part of the constitution. Or if two thirds of both houses shall think a change necessary, they shall recommend to the people to vote for or against a convention, and if a majority so vote, the Legislature at its next session shall call a convention, to be held within six months, which convention shall consist of a number of members not less than that of both branches of the Legislature.

The boundary of the State shall be as follows: Commencing at the point of intersection of the 42d degree of north latitude with the 120th degree of longitude west from Greenwich, and running south on the line of said 120th degree of west longitude until it intersects the 39th degree of north latitude; thence running in a straight line, in a southeasterly direction, to the River Colorado, at a point where it intersects the 35th degree of north latitude; thence down the middle of the channel of said river, to the boundary line between the United States and Mexico, as established by the treaty of May 30th, 1848; thence running west, and along said boundary line, to the Pacific Ocean, and extending therein three English miles ; thence running in a northwesterly direction, and following the direction of the Pacific coast to the 42d degree of north latitude; thence on the line of said 420 degree of north latitude to the place of beginning; including also all the islands, harbours, and bays along and adjacent to the Pacific coast.

Government for the Year 1851.

Salary. PETER H. BURNETT, of San José, Governor (term expires Dec. 31, 1851),

$ 10,000 C. P. Ryland,

Gov.'s Priv. Secretary, 2,000 John McDougall, of Sacramento City, Lieutenant-Governor, $3 per day.

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Salary. Wm. Van Voorhies, of San José, Secretary of State, $7,000 John S. Houston,

Comptroller,

8,000 Richard Roman,

Treasurer,

9,000 E.J. C. Kewen, of Sacramento City, Attorney-General,

7,500 Chas. J. Whiting, of San José, Surveyor-General,

7,500 J. Winchester, of San Francisco, State Printer,

Fees. Joseph S. A. Scult, of San José,

66 Translator,

8,000 P. D. Kohler, of Sacramento City,

Assayer,

Per cent. 0. P. Sutton, P. P. Lee, of Monterey, Adjutant-General,

2,000 Joseph C. Morehead, of San José, Quartermaster-General, 1,000

Supreme Court. S. C. Hastings, of San Francisco, Chief Justice, $ 10,000 H. A. Lyons,

Associate,

10,000 Nath. Bennett,

10,000 E. H. Tharp,

Clerk,

Fees. Henry Norton,

Reporter,

District Courts.
Judge.
Residence.

Residence.
Salary. District Attorney.

Salary. 0. S. Witherby, San Diego, $ 7,500 W. C. Ferrill,

San Diego, $ 2,000 Henry A. Tefft, San Luis Obispo, 7,500

2,000 John H. Watson, San José, 7,500

Fred. H. Sanford, San José, 2,000 Levi Parsons, San Francisco, 7,500 Calhoun Benham, San Francisco, 2,000 Charles M. Creaner, Stockton, 7,500

2.000 Jas. P. Thomas, Sacramento City, 7,500

Wallace, Sacramento City, 2,000 Robert Hopkins, Sonoma, 7,500

2,000 Wm. R. Turner, Marysville, 7,500

Watkins, Marysville, 2,000 W. S. Sherwood, Mountains, 7,500 Jas. W. McCorkie, Yateston City, 2,000

Superior Court of San Francisco.
P. A. Morse,
Chief Justice.

J. C. Smith,

Assistant Justice.
H. C. Murray,
Assistant do.

Edward Jones,

Clerk.

State Militia.
Div. Officers.
Residence.

Div. Officers. Residence. 1. Thos. J. Green, Oro, Maj.-Gen. 3. Jno. E. Addison, San Francisco, Brig.-Gen. " Thos. B. Eastman,“

Brig.-Gen.“ D. P. Baldwin, Stockton, " A. M. Winn, Sacram. City,

4. Josh. H. Bean, San Diego, Maj.-Gen. 2. J. E. Bracketh, Sonoma, Maj.-Gen. “ Thos. H. Bowen,

Brig-Gen. « Robert Semple, Benicia, Brig.-Gen.“ J. M. Covarrubias, San Barbara, McDonald, Sonoma,

" P. Per Lee,

Monterey, Adj't-Gen. 3. David P. Douglass, Stockton, Maj. Gen. “ J. C. Morehead, San José, Quarterm. Gen.

Chief Sources of State Revenue. (Estimated.) I. State tax of } per cent. on $200,000,000 worth of real and personal property,

$1,000,000.00 II. Poll tax of $5 each on 50,000 inhabitants,

250,000.00 III. Miners' tax of $ 20 per month on 25,000 foreign miners, which may net 250,000.00 IV. Duties on auction sales,

25,000.00 $1,525,000.00

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Whole value of taxable property,

$ 200,000,000.00 Whole amount of absolute State debt,

390,000.00 Monthly interest on State debt,

8,000.00 Ordinary annual expenditure, inclusive of State debt,

600,000.00 Recapitulation. Whole amount of revenue from all sources,

$1,525,000.00 Whole amount of annual expenses of State government, including interest on State debt,

700,000.00 Balance remaining in the Treasury after deducting entire expenses of State government,

$ 825,000.00

.

Post-Offices and Postmasters in California.
Special Post-Office Agent for California, R. T. P. ALLEN.
Places.

Names.
Places.

Names.
Benicia,
C. H. Hayden,

San José,

J. D. Hoppe,
Colloma, J. J. Little,

Santa Barbara, S. Barney,
Los Angelos,
T. W. Hope,

Santa Clara, Hector Cooper, Monterey, Andrew Randall, Santa Cruz, Alex. McLean, Sacramento, S. B. Freeland, Sonoma,

L. W. Boggs, Salls Creek, J. D. Powers, Stockton, G. R. Buffmun, San Diego, R. Rust,

Vernon,

G. A. Grunt. San Francisco, Jacob B. Moore,

The first mails despatched to California left New York the 20 of October, 1848, and were sent by way of Cape Horn. The subsequent mails have been sent by the Isthmus of Panama. The first mail was contained in a single bag. The one on the 23d of June, 1850, filled 160 bags.

The cost of the mail service to and in California is as follows:Contract Laws Line, New York to Chagres, per annum,

$ 290,000 Aspinwall's, Panama to San Francisco,

190,000 Mail agents, and freight of mails over the Isthmus,

20,000

$500,000 These contracts were authorized by Congress, and made for ten years, for semi-monthly service on the east, and monthly on the west.

The contracts made for interior service in California by the special agent are as follows: San Francisco to Sacramento, . $ 14,000 San Francisco to Monterey,

$ 9,000 to Stockton, 22,040 Benicia to Sonoma,

1,800 Sacramento to Marysville, 12,000 San José to Santa Cruz,

3,000 to Colloma, 5,000

$ 66,840 Charges of postage between any points in California and Oregon, 124 cents, and to any other place in the United States, 40 cents.

Population.
From the best data, the emigration since January 1st, 1849, up to July 1st, 1850,

40,000 by sailing vessels and steamers, is about Americans over land from last year's emigration,

15,000 Up to date over land of this year's emigration,

9,000 From Oregon,

3,000 67,000

7,000 Of this number there have returned at least Total now in the State,

60,000

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The amount of foreign arrivals by sea up to date, about

12,000 by land,

18,000

30,000 The number returned, about

2,000 Total now in the State,

28,000 The remaining population up to this date, Americans and foreigners, is, Natives and residents before January 1st, 1849,

15,000 Americans, up to date,

60,000 Foreigners, up to date,

28,000

103,000 Meteorological Table for Monterey, California. Lat. 36° 38' N. Long. 121° W. Alt. of Bar. above the level of the Pacific, 140 feet. By A. Randall.

Barometer. 1849

Therm. Attached. Therm. Detached.
and Sun. 9 3 9 Sun 9 3 9 Sun. 9 3 9
1850. rise. A. M. P. M. P. M. rise. A.M.P.M.P. M. rise. A.M. P.M.P.M.
July, 29.995 29.984 29.956 29.92958.3 626 63.661.0 52.0 61.0 71.0 60.0 62.0
August, 29.991 29.963 29.907 29.917 54.9 60.4 65.8 61.5 50.0 56.0 69.0 55.0 59.9
Sept., 29.981 29.953 29.952 29.972 51.9 59.2 62.6 59.5 51.8 57.4 66.0 57.0 60.0
Oct.,

29.979 29.975 29.981 29.971 56. 59.0 64.1 60.7 51.0 58.0 69.0 56.0 60.5
30.077 30.072 30.103 30.106 57.1) 58.2 61.6 60.8 48.0 55.0 62.0 53.0 56.5 0.62

29.996 29.951 29.973 29 98252.1 53.1 57.6 58.2 13.0 500 61.0 45.0 53.2 3.45 Jan.,

29.989 30.052 29.724 29.790 51.0 53.4 57.7 55.0 40.0 50.0 61.0 46.0 51.6 2.95 Feb., 30.075 30.108 30.100 30.107 16,6 55,3 58.0 49.241.5 50.5 65.0 45.6 47.7 2.00 March, 30.076 30.740 30.018 30.013 38.8 52.8 52.8 50.0 42.0 51.0 62.0 46.8 47.2 4.22 April, 29.971 29.987 30.039 30.004 53.1 56.6 60.9 56.5 50.0 50.0 59.0 51.0 54.9 .33 May,

29.978 29.976 29.991 29.944 54.3 57.1 60.3 56.1 | 51.0 58.0 61.0 51.0 56.5 June,

29.824 29.815 29.333 29.836 54.6 53.2 61.0 53.7 151.0 59.0 62.0 53.0 56.9

Rain. cooMean.

Auenbi

Nov., Dec.,

Slight earthquake at 81 A. M. on the 10th of July. At 9 P. M. on the 18th of August, very quick flashes of lightning. Foggy every evening through the month of September. Light rain on the 7th and 30th of October. Frost on the 24th of November; rained 10 days during the month. Rained 11 days in December, and violent storm on the 17th; heavy frost on the 4th and 29th. Rained 10 days during January; hail-storm on the 22d. 12th of February, at 3 P. M., thermometer 1220 in the sun; 6 rainy days; hail-storms on the 21st, 25th, 26th, and 27th. 9 days' rain in March. 2 days' rain in April. The general flowering-time of fruit-trees along the coast is the middle of March, peaches generally taking the lead, but the interval between them and the pear and apple being less marked than in the States.

XXXII. OREGON TERRITORY.
Government for the Year 1851.

Term expires. Salary.
John P. GAINES, of Oregon City, Governor and Superintend-

ent of Indian Affairs, 1853, $3,000 Knitzing Pritchett,

Secretary,

1853, 1,500

JUDICIARY. William P. Bryant, of Oregon City, Chief Justice, 2,000 0. C. Pratt,

Associate Justice, 2,000 Amory Holbrook,

Attorney,

Fees and 200 Joseph L. Meek,

Marshall,

Fees. D. B. St. John,

Collector,

Fees.

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XXXIII. MINESOTA TERRITORY.

This Territory was organized by act of Congress of March 3, 1849, a full abstract of which act, containing boundaries, constitution, &c., is found in the Almanac for 1850, p. 145.

Government for the Year 1851.

Term ends. Salary. ALEXANDER RAMSEY, of St. Paul, Governor and Sup't of

Indian Affairs, 1853, $ 2,500 C. K. Smith,

Secretary,

1,800 David Olmsted, of Long Prairie, President of Council. Joseph W. Furber, of Cottage Grove, Speaker of the House. Joseph R. Brown,

Clerk of the Senate. William D. Phillips,

Clerk of the House.

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JUDICIARY. Aaron Goodrich, of St. Paul,

Chief Justice, 1853, $ 2,000 David Cooper,

Associate Justice,

2,000 Benj. B. Meeker,

2,000 Henry L. Moss, of Stillwater, Attorney,

Fees. Alexander M. Mitchell, of St. Paul, Marshal,

Fees. The Territory of Minesota embraces an area of 150,000 square miles, and by the census taken in June, 1849, there were about 4,500 free white male inhabitants in the Territory.

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XXXIV. UTAH TERRITORY.

For the act establishing a territorial government in Utah, see post, Abstracts of Public Laws, No. 23.

Government for the Year 1851.

Term ends. Salary. BRIGHAM Young,

Governor and Sup't of
Indian Affairs,

1854, $ 2,500 Broughton D. Harris,

Secretary,

1,800

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