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the resolution of 19th January, 1832. And the Senate of the United States did accordingly refuse to give its assent to the award.
The arbitration of the King of the Netherlands having failed, fruitless negotiations ensued for a period of eleven years. Unsuccessful attempts were made to conclude an agreement preparatory to another arbitration. The subject became a matter of great irritation, collisions occurred in the contested territory, and for a time it seemed certain that the controversy would result in war between the two powers. In 1842, however, Great Britain gave unequivocal proof of her desire for the preservation of peace, and an amicable arrangement of the matter at issue, by the special mission of Lord Ashburton to the United States. The subject of this mission was the settlement, not only of the northeastern boundary, but the northern boundary west of the Rocky Mountains. Regarding this object of his mission, Lord Ashburton's instructions gave as the ultimatum of the English Government the boundary as above claimed (p. 15), and, naturally, his mission had no result, as far as this portion of the boundary was concerned.
An agreement was reached, however, in regard to the northeastern boundary, which, the consent of the State of Maine having been obtained, was embodied in the treaty concluded August 9, 1842.
TREATY WITH GREAT Britain, 1842.
The following is the text of the portion of this treaty relating to the boundary:
ARTICLE I. It is hereby agreed and declared that the line of boundary shall be as follows: Beginning at the monument at the source of the river St. Croix, as designated and agreed to by the commissioners under the fifth article of the treaty of 1794, between the Governments of the United States and Great Britain; thence north, following the exploring line run and marked by the surveyors of the two Governments in the years 1817 and 1818, under the fifth article of the treaty of Ghent, to its intersection with the river St. John, and to the middle of the channel thereof; thence up the middle of the main channel of the said river St. John, to the mouth of the river Saint Francis; thence up the middle of the channel of the said river St. Francis, and of the lakes through which it flows, to the outlet of the Lake Pohenagamook; thence southwesterly, in a straight line, to a point on the northwest branch of the river St. John, which point shall be ten miles distant from the main branch of the St. John, in a straight line, and in the nearest direction, but if the said point shall be found to be less than seven miles from the nearest point of the summit or crest of the highlands that divide those rivers which empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence from those which fall into the river St. John, there the said point shall be made to recede down the said northwest branch of the river St. John to a point seven miles in a straight line from the said summit or crest; thence in a straight line, in a course about south, eight degrees west, to the point where the parallel of latitude 46° 25' north intersects the southwest branch of the St. John's; thence southerly, by the said branch, to the source thereof in the highlands at the Metjarmette portage; thence down along the said highlands which divide the waters which empty themselves into the river Saint Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the head of Hall's stream; thence down the
middle of said stream till the line thus run intersects the old line of boundary surveyed and marked by Valentine and Collins, previously to the year 1774, as the 45th degree of north latitude, and which has been known and understood to be the line of actual division between the States of New York and Vermont on one side, and the British province of Canada on the other; and from said point of intersection, west, along the said dividing line, as heretofore known and understood, to the Iroquois or St. Lawrence River.
ARTICLE II. It is moreover agreed that, from the place where the joint commissioners terminated their labors under the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent, to wit, at a point in the Neebish channel, near Muddy Lake, the line shall run into and along the ship channel, between St. Joseph and Saint Tammany islands, to the division of the channel at or near the head of St. Joseph's Island; thence turning eastwardly and northwardly around the lower end of St. George's or Sugar Island, and following the middle of the channel which divides St. George's from St. Joseph's Island; thence up the east Neebish channel, nearest to St. George's Island, through the middle of Lake George; thence west of Jonas' Island, into St. Mary's River, to a point in the middle of that river, about one mile above St. George's or Sugar Island, so as to appropriate and assign the said island to the United States; thence, adopting the line traced on the maps by the commissioners, through the river St. Mary and Lake Superior, to a point north of Ile Royale, in said lake, one hundred yards to the north and east of Ile Chapeau, which last mentioned island lies near the northeastern point of Ile Royale, where the line marked by the commissioners terminates; and from the last-mentioned point, southwesterly, through the middle of the sound between Ile Royale and the northwestern mainland, to the mouth of Pigeon River, and up the said river, to and through the north and south Fowl Lakes, to the lakes of the height of land between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods; thence along the water communication to Lake Saisaginaga, and through that lake; thence to and through Cypress Lake, Lac du Bois Blanc, Lac la Croix, Little Vermillion Lake, and Lake Namecan, and through the severel smaller lakes, straits, or streams, connecting the lakes here mentioned to that point in Lac la Pluie, or Rainy Lake, at the Chaudière Falls, from which the commissioners traced the line to the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods; thence, along the said line, to the said most north western point, being in latitude 49° 23' 55" north, and in longitude 95° 14' 38" west from the observatory at Greenwich; thence, according to existing treaties, due south to its intersection with the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, and along that parallel to the Rocky Mountains. It being understood that all the water communications and all the usual portages along the line from Lake Superior to the Lake of the Woods, and also Grand Portage, from the shore of Lake Superior to the Pigeon River, as now actually used, shall be free and open to the use of the citizens and subjects of both countries.
ARTICLE VII. It is further agreed that the channels in the river St. Lawrence, on both sides of the Long Sault Islands, and of Barnhart Island; the channels in the river Detroit, on both sides of the island Bois Blanc, and between that island and both the American and Canadian shores, and all the several channels and passages between the various islands lying near the junction of the river St. Clair with the lake of that name, shall be equally free and open to the ships, vessels, and boats of both parties.
Between 1843 and 1846 there was considerable negotiation regarding the boundary west of the Rocky Mountains, resulting finally in the Webster-Ashburton treaty, which defined the boundary as far west as the straits of Juan de Fuca. The following is that portion of the treaty which defines the boundary.