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tude"); thence in a direct line 954 rods 18 links to the road leading from West Woodstock by Abel Mason's to Southbridge (this point is 10 rods and 22 links north of “first line of latitude"); thence in a direct line 1,247 rods to the road leading from Union by Asher Bodgen's to Holland (this point is 2 rods 144 links south of “second line of latitude"); thence in a direct line 1,127 rods to the turnpike from Hertford, through Stafford and Holland, to Worcester (this point is 6 rods 237 links south of the “second line of latitude"); thence in a direct line 467 rods to an old white oak tree, an ancient bound, on the road from Stafford by Robert Andruss' to South Brimfield (this point is 1 rod 2 links south of “second line of latitude"); thence in a direct line of 1,615 rods to the road leading from Stafford by Henry Cady's to Monson (this point is 16 rods 15 links south of “second line of latitude"); thence in a direct line 256 rods to the Tracy road (this point is 12 rods 12 links south of “second line of latitude"); thence in a direct line 620 rods to the road leading from Stafford by Seth Sheldon's to South Wilbraham (this point is 14 rods 7 links south of “second line of latitude"); thence in -a direct line 1,066 rods to the road from Somer's by Walter Ainsworth’s to Springfield (this point is 4 rods 1 link north of "second line of latitude"); thence in a direct line 523 rods to the road from Somer's by Abel Peas's to Springfield (this point is 6 rods 12 links south of the second line of latitude"); thence due west 645 rods to the ancient line between Springfield (now Long Meadow) and Enfield; thence south 80° 30' west by the true meridian 645 rods to a monument at an old oak stump; thence south 51° 30' west by the true meridian 164 rods 18 links to a monument at an old pine stump; thence due west 349 rods 15 links to a monument on the Connecticut River 12 rods from the shore; thence due west to the Connecticut River. On the line are erected 49 monument stones, marked on the north side M and on the south side C.

The commissioners also surveyed and marked the line from the corner of Connecticut to the corner of Rhode Island, reporting as follows:

Beginnirg at the monument erected at the northeast corner of said State of Connecticut and running in a direct line to the ancient heap of stones on the north side of the turnpike leading from Hertford to Boston, through Thompson and Douglass, where we erected a monument, and thence running in a direct line to the northwest corner of the State of Rhode Island.

(For survey of 1826, see Private Laws of Conn., vol. 2, pages 1544 to 1550.)

The boundary between Massachusetts and New York at an early period became a subject of bitter dispute, New York claiming to the west bank of the Connecticut River, under the charters of 1664 and 1674 to the Duke of York, Massachusetts claiming, under her old charters, to the South Sea. After many fruitless attempts at a settlement, an arrangement was entered into in 1773 fixing the western boundary of Massachusetts where it meets New York territory. The Revolution following soon after, the line was not run. In 1785 Congress appointed three commissioners to run the line, who performed that duty in 1787. The line was as follows, viz:

Beginning at a monument erected in 1731 by commissioners from Connecticut and New York, distant from the Hudson River 20 miles, and running north 15° 12' 9'', east 50 miles 41 chainsand 79 links, to a red or black oak tree marked by said commissioners, which said line was run as the magnetic needle pointed in 1787. (Vide Revised Statutes of New York, 1875, p. 122.)

The claims of Massachusetts to western lands were finally settled December 16, 1786, by a joint commission of the two States. By this agreement Massachusetts surrendered the sovereignty of the whole disputed territory to New York, and received in return the right of soil and preemption right of Indian purchase west of the meridian passing through the eighty-second mile-stone of the Pennsylvania line, excepting certain reservations upon Niagara River. The title to a tract known as “The Boston Ten Towns,” lying east of this meridian, previously granted by Massachusetts, was also confirmed. (Vide Hough's N. Y. Gaz., 1872, pp. 25, 26.)

April 19, 1785, Massachusetts executed a deed to the United States. It included all title of the State of Massachusetts to territory west of the present western boundary of New York.

In 1820 Maine, hitherto a part of Massachusetts, was admitted into the Union as an independent State.

In 1853 a small portion of territory in the southwestern corner of Massachusetts, known as Boston Corner, was ceded to New York, and the cession confirmed by Congress in 1855.

The cession of Boston Corner to New York changes the boundary, so that it is now as follows, viz:

Beginning at a monument erected in 1731 by commissioners from Connecticut and New York (known as the Connecticut monument), standing in the south boundary of Massachusetts, latitude 42° 02' 58".54, longitude 73° 30' 065.66, which is the northwest corner of the State of Connecticut; thence along the south boundary of Massachusetts, north 89° 08' 41" west, 40 chains; thence north 12° 57' 16" west 207.495 chains to a marble post marked on the east side M. S., on the west side N. Y., and on the south side 1853, which is in the line run by United States commissioners in 1787; thence north 15° 12' 9" east on the line run by said United States commissioners (a 47 miles 73.705 chains) to a red or black oak tree marked by said United States commissioners, in the south boundary of the State of Vermont, latitude 42° 44' 45".48, longitude 73° 16' 17".68. [See Revised Statutes of New York, 1875, page 122; also plat of survey of Boston Corner in 1853, a copy of which is on file in office of clerk of House of Representatives at Washington, D. C.]

a This distance has been obtained by subtracting the length of the west line of Boston Corner given in survey of 1853 from the entire length of west boundary of Massachusetts as given by the United States commissioners in 1787.

RHODE ISLAND.

The present State of Rhode Island was settled by Roger Williams and other immigrants, who left Massachusetts Bay and established themselves at Providence in 1636.

In 1643 a patent was granted for the Providence Plantation, from which the following are extracts, viz:

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And wheras there is a tract of land in the continent of America aforesaid, called by the name of the Narraganset Bay, bordering north ward and northeast on the patent of the Massachusetts, east and southeast on Plymouth patent, south on the ocean, and on the west and northwest by the Indians called Narigganneucks, alias Narragansets, the whole tract extending about 25 English miles unto the Pequot River and country; and wheras divers English inhabitants of the towns of Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport, in the tract aforesaid, * have represented their desire, *

do * give, grant, and confirm to the aforesaid inhabitants of the towns of Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport a firm and absolute charter of incorporation, to be known by the name of the incorporation of Providence Plantations, in the Narraganset Bay, in New England. *

In 1663 Charles II granted a charter to Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, of which the following is an extract:

“All that parte of our dominiones in New-England, in America, conteyneing the Nahantick and Narragansett Bay, and countryes and partes adjacent, bounded on the west, or westerly, to the middle or channel of a river there, commonly called and known by the name of Pawcatuck, alias Pawcawtuck river, and soe along the sayd river, as the greater or middle streame thereof reacheth or lyes upp into the north countrye, northward, unto the head thereof, and from thence, by a streight lyne drawn due north until itt meets with the south lyne of the Massachusetts Collony; and on the north, or northerly, by the aforesayd south or southerly lyne of the Massachusetts Collony or Plantation, and extending towards the east, or eastwardly, three English miles to the east and north-east of the most eastern and northeastern parts of the aforesayd Narragansett Bay, as the sayd bay lyeth or extendeth itself from the ocean on the south, or southwardly, unto the mouth of the river which runneth towards the towne of Providence, and from thence along the eastwardly side or banke of the sayd river (higher called by the name of Seacunck river), up to the ffalls called Patuckett ffalls, being the most westwardly lyne of Plymouth Collony, and soe from the sayd ffalls, in a streight lyne, due north, untill itt meet with the aforesayd line of the Massachusetts Collony; and bounded on the south by the ocean.' And in particular, the lands belonging to the townes of Providence, Pawtuxet, Worwicke, Nusquammack, alias Pawcatuck, and the rest upon the main land in the tract aforesayd together with Rhode Island, Blocke Island, and all the rest of the islands and banks in the Narragansett Bay and bordering upon the coast of the tracts aforesaid (Fishers Island only excepted). *

(For history of the northern and eastern boundaries see Massachusetts, p. 54.)

In 1703 substantially the present western boundary was settled by an agreement made between the commissioners from the two colonies

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of Rhode Island and Connecticut, viz: “A straight line from the mouth of Ashawoga River to the southwest corner of the Warwick purchase, and thence a straight north line to Massachusetts.

The line of 1703 was actually run by Rhode Island, and is still known as the Dexter and Hopkins line.

The two colonies disagreeing, Rhode Island appealed to the King, and the agreement of 1703 was finally established in 1726.

In September, 1728, commissioners from the two colonies met and ran the line.

(For agreement of 1703 and 1728, decisions of English council, etc., see R. I. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. III.)

In 1839 commissioners were appointed by Rhode Island and Connecticut to survey and ascertain the line and erect monuments.

The following line was established, viz:

Beginning at a rock near the mouth of Ashawoga River, where it empties into Pawcatuck River, and from said rock a straight course northerly to an ancient stone heap at the southeast corner of the town of Voluntown, and from said rock southerly in the same course with the aforesaid line, until it strikes Pawcatuck River. From the southeast corner of Voluntown a straight line to a stone heap at the southwest corner of West Greenwich; from thence a straight line to the southwest corner of the ancient town of Warwick, and which is now a corner of the towns of Coventry and West Greenwich; from thence a straight line to the northwest corner of the town of Coventry; thence a straight line to the northeast corner of Sterling; thence a straight line to the southwest corner of Burrillville, and thence a straight line to a stone heap upon a hill in the present jurisdictional line between the States of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and at all of said corners, excepting said Warwick corner, we have erected monuments of stone, marked R. I. and C., and have also placed similar monuments on all the principal roads crossing the line, and at other suitable places.

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And we have caused the ancient monument which was erected at the Warwick corner in November, 1742, to be reset and a large heap of stones to be made around it. Said monument is marked with the

C. on one side, and on the other RHODE. ISLAND and the traces of other letters and figures. [Extract from Commissioner's Report. See R. I. Acts and Resolves, Jan. 1846, pages 12, 13, 14.]

The above was ratified in 1846.

CONNECTICUT.

The title by which the people of Connecticut held the country was founded on the old patent granted by Robert, Earl of Warwick, in 1631, to Lord Say and Seal, Lord Brooke, Sir Richard Saltonstall, and others, associated under the name of the Plymouth Company.

In 1630 the Plymouth Council made a grant of Connecticut to the Earl of Warwick, their president. This was confirmed by King Charles in 1631, and on the 19th of March, in the same year, the Earl conveyed his title to the Plymouth Company, as before stated. (Dwight's Conn., p. 19, et seq.)

A charter was granted by Charles II to Connecticut in 1662, of which the following is an extract, viz:

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