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Cooperative relations were arranged also with the boards of health of Minnesota and Ohio. In the former case an agreement was entered into between the State board of health and the University of Minnesota and the Geological Survey, whereby certain work was to be performed and paid for by appropriations agreed upon. It is the purpose of those in charge of the division to make arrangements of this character in all possible cases.
When it was proposed to devise methods for water analysis those in charge of the chemical departments of the important railroads of the country were asked to submit their ideas on the subject, as well as the results of experience gained in their various laboratories. In this way there was brought together a large amount of valuable information which has been used in devising these methods. Among the roads which have been of assistance in this way are the Pennsylvania Railroad, Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, Chicago and Northwestern, Milwaukee and St. Paul, Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe, Union Pacific, Baltimore and Ohio, Norfolk and Western, Philadelphia and Reading, New York Central and Hudson River.
The work of the division of hydro-economics, although recently established, has already afforded practical results. Among the most important of these are:
Determinations of sources of water suitable for industrial and boiler purposes in West Virginia, western Pennsylvania, and southeastern Ohio.
Character of water supplies of southeastern Kansas.
A chemical survey of waters in Florida, with special reference to their suitability for use in steam boilers.
Sulphite wood-pulp waste; its damage to natural waters and the prevention thereof on Androscoggin River, Maine.
Coal-mine wastes; their character and value and their effect upon the waters of Susquehanna and Lehigh rivers, Pennsylvania.
Straw-board waste in Indiana and Ohio; its damage to water resources, the prevention thereof, and its profitable recovery.
Character of waters in Minnesota and Iowa, with special reference to the possibility of their being used as city supplies.
Determination of alkaline and saline constituents in waters of the arid States which it is proposed to conserve for irrigation purposes.
Character of normal waters in Kentucky and their value in municipal and industrial lines.
Interstate pollution of Hoosic River, in Vermont, Massachusetts, and New York, and the damage caused thereby to riparian owners in New York.
For publications on hydro-economic subjects see the Survey's list of publications.
The reclamation service is an outgrowth of the early investigations of the arid region begun by Maj. J. W. Powell, and continued by authority of Congress under a resolution approved March 27, 1888, and an appropriation made October 2, 1888 (see p. 75). Systematic examination of the streams of the arid region were then begun by the Geological Survey, and have been carried on continuously in connection with topographic surveys or by means of various appropriations and allotments made for gaging streams and determining the water supply, as described in the preceding pages.
The act approved June 17, 1902, known as the reclamation law, creates a fund in the Treasury from the disposal of public lands in 13 States and 3 Territories. This fund is to be expended by the Secretary of the Interior in the reclamation of arid lands.
In order to carry into effect the purpose of the law, the Secretary authorized the creation of a division in the Geological Survey designated the “reclamation service,” utilizing, for this purpose, the men who had previously been investigating the extent to which the arid lands might be reclaimed, and adding to these, through civil-service examinations, other men experienced in construction of reclamation works or in the administration of water laws.
The reclamation service now consists of about 250 engineers, assistant engineers, and engineering aids, organized under a chief engineer, who is assisted by supervising, consulting, and district engineers. Each of the district engineers is in charge of the operations in a State or a large drainage basin, and conducts the general examinations and directs the assistant engineers and engineering aids in work on definite projects. When these projects have been brought to a point where conclusions can be reached, the facts and recommendations are submitted to the chief engineer, who in turn refers them to a board of consulting engineers to pass upon the adequacy of the work, the completeness of the designs, and all facts which bear upon the feasibility of the project. If additional information or any modifications are desired by the board, the matter is referred back to the district engineer for further consideration. Ultimately the plans perfected and approved by the consulting engineers are submitted, with suitable recommendations, through the Director of the Geological Survey, to the Secretary of the Interior. When the plans are passed upon and approved by the Secretary, if the work is to be done by contract, advertisements and specifications are prepared and bids invited for the work, these being so arranged as to permit as great competition as possible. If it is decided that any part or all of the work shall be done by the Government, instructions to that effect are given.
Such surveys and examinations for specific construction have been begun at important points in the various States and Territories. Construction is in progress in Nevada and Arizona, and plans leading to early construction in several other States are in hand. For locations of the principal irrigation projects see fig. 2, p. 80.
The States and Territories in which reclamation works may be built and which include public land from which a revenue is derived are Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
The amount of available funds derived under the law from the different States differs widely, as the largest amount of land is being disposed of in those States where the climatic conditions favor farming without irrigation or where there are considerable bodies of timber land. Thus it happens that the States which have the largest amount of arid land and the development of which under irrigation is most important contribute the smallest amount to the fund.
The works must be so designed as to reclaim arid land whose value will be so great that the cost of the water can be readily repaid by the settlers living on the land. The cost of the works is apportioned with a view to returning to the reclamation fund the cost of construction, and thus it is necessary not merely to conserve and regulate the flow of the streams, but to do this in such way that there can be no question as to the ability of the settlers to repay the cost to the Government. The money thus returned to the Treasury is added to the reclamation fund for subsequent use. Payments are made by the settlers in ten annual installments.
The irrigation of arid lands has already advanced, through private enterprise, to a point where the easily available waters have been utilized. There remain large rivers and the erratic floods which must be controlled for the reclamation of tracts of land which are partly in public and partly in private ownership, but to which water can not be brought by ordinary effort.
Nearly all the projects of reclamation involve not merely engineering difficulties, but legal and social questions dealing with acquired rights and with individuals having diverse views and conflicting interests. Thus it is necessary to employ not only engineering ability, but also a certain amount of legal skill, and, with these, tact and judgment in adjusting conflicting interests.
The thorough study which is being made of the opportunities for reclamation of the arid West, especially for the construction of large works of irrigation, will result in great changes in, and rapid development of the resources of, the western half of the United States. It will make available for use hundreds of thousands of acres of land now sterile and waste, and will indirectly result in giving increased value to all property, whether directly connected with agriculture and stock
raising or not. The mining and manufacturing industries will be stimulated by the opportunities of utilizing the mineral wealth which now lies dorment because of the scarcity of labor and the high prices of food stuffs. But more than all, opportunities will be offered for the establishment of prosperous homes on the national domain. The law is so drawn as to encourage the making of small farms and to prevent the monopolization of lands. Not more than 160 acres in the hands of one person can receive water from the Government works; and every effort is made to promote settlement in small tracts by men who will obtain their living from the cultivation of the soil.
Bringing to the West and establishing on small tracts thousands of industrious farmers will mean prosperity not merely to the individuals directly concerned, but to the manufacturing, jobbing, and transporting interests of the whole country. These farmers purchase their supplies from the East, and for every self-supporting home on the public domain there must be an increased demand for labor in the mills and factories of the East.
For reports by the reclamation service, see the Survey's list of publications.
· EDITORIAL DIVISION. Though the literary and cartographic output of the United States Geological Survey has now become large, exceeding that of most other Government bureaus, its publications during the first few years following the establishment of the Survey, in 1879, were, naturally, not numerous; the appropriations and the organization were small, and time was necessary for work and investigations to progress to a stage sufficiently advanced to justify publication. During those early years editorial supervision was exercised by the Director and the chief clerk. By the year 1884, however, the amount of manuscript currently submitted had grown so large that these officers could no longer perform this work in addition to their other duties. In that year, therefore, an editor was appointed, and since then there has been maintained in the Survey an editorial corps, which has been strengthened and specialized as necessity arose.
At first the publications consisted almost wholly of books and pamphlets—annual reports and a few monographs and bulletins; but it was not long until the topographic maps ready for engraving had become so numerous that they demanded systematic editorial supervision; and a few years later, when sufficient geologic information had been acquired to warrant the issue of the first folios of the Geologic Atlas of the United States, they too required technical editorial oversight. Moreover, the publications of the Survey necessarily contain numerous illustrations of topographic, geologic, and other phenomena and principles, and the preparation of drawings, sketches, maps, and photographic views for these requires the services of skilled draftsmen and photographers. The editorial division of the Survey therefore comprises five sections, whose work relates to texts, topographic maps, geologic maps, illustrations, and photography.
Section of Texts. In the section of texts there are now employed five persons-an editor and four assistants. To them is assigned the supervision of all matter to be put in type, after it has been transmitted by the author and approved by the Director for publication. The ordinary work of the section falls into three classes—(1) preparation of manuscripts for printing; (2) correction of proofs, and (3) making of indexes.
(1) All papers are carefully read in this section, typographic details are indicated for the printer's guidance, and an attempt is made to improve the literary character of the paper if it is not already good. The work of this section therefore relates chiefly to literary expression and form—the “ dress” of thought rather than the ideas themselves and to the mechanical details connected with printing and bookmaking. Papers are supposed to be appropriate for publication, sufficient in substance, and scientifically valid before they are approved by the Director; if he has any doubt that a paper is satisfactory in these respects he refers it to a specialist for criticism, and does not approve it for publication until it is pronounced worthy. Nevertheless, the editor and his assistants are expected to be watchful for errors of fact as well as for faults of expression. When a manuscript has been thus prepared for printing, and the drawings, photographs, etc. (if any are to be used), illustrating features treated in the paper are ready for reproduction, the whole is transmitted to the Secretary of the Interior, who forwards it to the Public Printer, the official in charge of the great Government Printing Office. In that office all the work on the text is done, but, under the law, the illustrations are reproduced by private parties through the system of competitive bids.
(2) With proofs the ordinary practice is followed. Comparison of galley proof with the manuscript, with the aid of a reader, is carefully made at the Government Printing Office, and that labor is not usually duplicated by the Survey editors. They either read critically or examine carefully the galley proof, and then transmit it to the author, who is expected to do the same. It is then returned to the printer, the necessary corrections are made in the types, the matter is made up in page form, and page proof is sent to the Survey. This is carefully read by a member of the textual section—if practicable by one who did not read the manuscript or the galley proof-and is then submitted to the author, in order that he may be assured that all the important changes he desired have been made, and that he may have another opportunity to make important corrections if they involve only slight disturbance of the types. This first page proof is then