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returned to the printer, the corrections are made, and a second and final page proof is sent to the Survey. This also is submitted to the author if he is in or near Washington, but it is not his privilege to make further changes.

(3) When the proof reading has been finished it is necessary in most cases to prepare an index to the paper. Occasionally an author prefers to make the index, but usually he is more than willing that this tedious work should be done in the Survey office. A good index is held in high esteem by scientific men, and a large part of the energy of the textual force goes into index making. Besides the detailed indexes to the individual papers, the textual section prepares and publishes a catalogue and general index of all the Survey publications..

In addition to the work noted in the foregoing paragraphs, which relates to the regular series of publications—annual reports (Director's, mineral resources, reclamation service), monographs, professional papers, bulletins, water-supply and irrigation papers, and geologic folios—the textual section edits and reads the proof of all office and field circulars and printed forms, which are numerous.

The following summarized list of the publications of the Survey, by years, affords a conspectus of the literary output and of the growth thereof during the existence of the Survey:

Publications of the United States Geological Survey, by years.

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1880. 1 annual report (1st).........

1882. 1 annual report (20) .......... 2 monographs (II, III) ........

1883. 1 annual report (3d) ........ 3 monographs (IV, V, VI)........ 2 bulletins (1,2) ............................ 1 report on mineral resources (for 1882)........

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1886. 2 monographs (X, XII).... 10 bulletins (27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36) .... 1. report on mineral resources (for 1885).

1, 116
1,124

583

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Publications of the United States Geological Survey, by years—Continued.

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1888. 1 annual report (7th) ......... 2 monographs (XIII, XIV)......... 3 bulletins ( 46, 47, 48)..................... 1 report on mineral resources (for 1887) ............... 1 special report (Johnson's iron regions of Louisiana and Texas) ..

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1889. 2 annual reports (8th and 9th)............. 2 monographs (XV, XVI).. 8 bulletins (49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56).......................... 1 special report (Digest of decisions concerning water)...........

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1890. 1 annual report (10th) .......... 1 monograph (I) ......... 13 bulletins (57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70) .......... 1 report on mineral resources (for 1888).........

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1891. 2 annual reports (11th and 12th).. ................................. 2 monographs (XVII, XVIII)...............

................. 15 bulletins (65, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 91)......

1892. 1 annual report (13th, part of) ......... 2 monographs (XIX, XX)...................... 10 bulletins (84, 85, 86, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 99).......... 1 report on mineral resources (for 1889-90)............

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1893.

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1894. 1 annual report (14th, part of) ..... 2 monographs (XXIII, XXIV)........... 9 bulletins (114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122).......... 1 report on mineral resources (for 1893)... 14 geologic folios (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14) ........

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2 annual reports (15th and 16th, part of)....
3 monographs (XXV, XXVI, XXVIII)...............
8 bulletins (123, 124, 125, 126, 128, 129, 131, 133) ......................
1 report on mineral resources (for 1894) .......
8 geologic folios (15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22)..........

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Publications of the United States Geological Survey, by yearsContinued.

Printed pages.

Plates and

maps.

1896.

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2 annual reports (16th, part of, and 17th)....
1 monograph (XXVII)....
17 bulletins (127, 130, 132, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143,

144, 145, 146, 147) .................
1 water-supply and irrigation paper (1)..
1 report on mineral resources (for 1895)
13 geologic folios (23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35)..........

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1897. 1 annual report (18th, part of)............. 3 bulletins (87, 148, 149).................. 9 water-supply and irrigation papers (2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11) ........ 1 report on mineral resources (for 1896) 6 geologic folios (36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41)................................

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1898.

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2 annual reports (18th and 19th, parts of).......
4 monographs (XXIX, XXX, XXXI, XXXV)..........
9 bulletins (88, 89, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156) ........
8 water-supply and irrigation papers (10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18)...
1 report on mineral resources (for 1897)...
10 geologic folios (42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51) .........
1 special report on Alaska........
1 topographic folio (1) ............

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1899.

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2 annual reports (19th and 20th, parts of)........
6 monographs (XXXII, XXXIII, XXXIV, XXXVI, XXXVII,

XXXVIII)......
6 bulletins (157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162)...........
14 water-supply and irrigation papers (19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,

27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32)... 1 report on mineral resources (for 1898) ........ 10 geologic folios (52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61).......... 1 special report on Alaska ....

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1900.

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2, 306

2 annual reports (20th and 21st, parts of) .......
2 monographs (XXXIX, XL)..
14 bulletins (163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175,

176) .........
8 water-supply and irrigation papers (33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40)...
8 geologic folios (62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69).....
1 special report (Preliminary report on the Cape Nome gold region,

Alaska, 1900)..... 2 topographic folios (2, 3)......

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1901. 2 annual reports (21st and 22d, parts of). 10 bulletins (177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187)............. 16 water-supply and irrigation papers (41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48,

49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56)............ 2 reports on mineral resources (for 1899–1900).......................

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1, 273
2,233

Publications of the United States Geological Survey, by years—Continued.

Printed pages.

Plates and

maps.

1901-Continued. 6 geologic folios (70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75) ........ 2 special reports on Alaska (Reconnaissances in the Cape Nome and

Norton Bay regions in 1900; and Report on the Copper River district).........

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316

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1902. 2 annual reports (22d, part of, and 23d). ........ 1 monograph (XLI) ....... 9 professional papers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10)....... 18 bulletins (179, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199,

200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 207)... 18 water-supply and irrigation papers (57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65,

66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74) ........ 1 report on mineral resources (for 1901) 10 geologic folios (76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85)...........

1903. 1 annual report (24th) .......... 1 reclamation annual (1st)............ 4 monographs (XLII, XLIII, XLIV, XLV)....................... 10 professional papers (9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19). 16 bulletins (205, 206, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218,

219, 220, 221) ............................ 14 water-supply and irrigation papers (75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83,

84, 85, 86, 87, 88) .................................................... 1 report on mineral resources (for 1902) about...................... 15 geologic folios (86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100)...

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Section of Geologic Maps. The classification and geologic nomenclature adopted by the United States Geological Survey on its organization was based on the works of such eminent geologists as Dana and Le Conte, and has been the foundation of all later systems of the Survey. A scheme of colors for use on maps was provisionally adopted in 1881. It consisted of a limited number of colors, each representing a definite period of geologic time, and of a few patterns, which were used indiscriminately for all classes of rock.

The printing of geologic maps in colors was at that time an experiment, and the plan adopted by the Survey was tentative. It was soon found inadequate, and but few geologic maps were printed before 1889. Such as were published prior to that date have since been reissued upon a more comprehensive plan which was adopted in that year as a result of a conference of geologists.

This conference adopted rules of geologic nomenclature and a system of classification which accorded with the progress made in the

science of geology to that time. The method of publishing the Geologic Atlas of the United States was thoroughly revised. The engraying division of the Survey having been established, it was possible, with the aid of the chief of that division, to prepare color patterns and tints, and the geologists in charge were enabled to exercise closer supervision of the engraving and printing of geologic maps. Thus greater accuracy of engraving and better register of the intricate colors were obtained. It was not until 1892, however, that any of the final maps of the atlas could be issued.

To supervise the editing of this material and to devise and apply · rules and regulations, a geologist was selected to act as editor of geo

logic maps, and from this beginning the section of geologic map editing has developed.

These rules and plan of publication remained in force until December, 1903, when the growth of the science demanded further changes, and new rules were formulated and put into effect in January, 1904. As the number and intricacy of the folios increased, the work of the section also increased and the force was enlarged. At present it consists of a geologist acting as editor, assisted by three draftsmen.

The section of geologic maps has charge of the publication of the geologic folios. Its duties are to examine geologic maps and other illustrations to see that they are adequate for publication, and, if not, to properly prepare them; to read the proofs and compare them with the manuscripts; and to select the colors and patterns chosen for the representation of geologic formations. Errors and inaccuracies occurring in the manuscript or on the proof sheets are eliminated, and by careful study and selection the most effective and pleasing results of colors and patterns are obtained. The folios, which are portions of a great geologic atlas, are thus made uniform in style and form, whereas they would otherwise vary as widely as the temperaments of the various authors.

A standard geologic folio comprises a descriptive text, in which the geography, topography, and geology of the area are described; a topographic map; a geologic map, printed in colors, showing the areal distribution of the geologic formations; a geologic map showing the deposits of economic value in stronger or more brilliant colors; a geologic map on which the underground structure of the rocks is exhibited by vertical sections representing what would be seen in deep trenches across the area; and a columnar section, in which the rocks are represented in a vertical column in their normal relation one to another, accompanied by a condensed description of their composition, thickness, and relations.

For special areas other maps or illustrations are included. Often it is desirable to present with the description a page of illustrations reproduced from photographs or sketches. For artesian-water areas

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