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Southern America, the Country imposed on such of its Children as were absent, the sacred duty of abandoning the Enemy's Country, and of returning to their own, to join their Brethren, and partake in their labours, as well as in the glory which they are about to acquire by their noble efforts to render American Independence general and permanent. Your Emperor, your perpetual Defender, and Friend, has no doubt of your honour or patriotism. He is assured that you will immediately come and range yourselves round his Constitutional Throne, the surest guarantee of the perpetuity of your Independence. o Come, and employ your patriotism, talents and virtues, advantageously, in the service of the Empire, and for the happiness of our dear Country, Powerful motives and difficulties, designedly created by our implacable enemies, may, probably, oppose your wishes and delay your return. Let not these difficulties and obstacles discourage you; patriotism and love of glory will teach you to overcome them. I fix six months as the term for your return to your homes; come and co-operate with your Fellow Citizens in the great work of our political regeneration. Brazil requires it, and your Emperor commands it. If it should happen, which God forbid! that, at the expiration of this term, any degenerate or deluded Brazilian shall obstinately remain among our Enemies, he shall cease to form part of the great Brazilian Family; he shall be considered a Subject of Portugal, and lose all the Rights of a Citizen of the Empire, and the whole of his Property shall be liable to the Penalty of Sequestration, according to the tenor of my Imperial Decree of the 11th of December last. Brazilians! I flatter myself you will answer this call of honour and national dignity: my expectation will not be deceived. Palace of Rio de Janeiro, January 8, 1823. THE EMPEROR.

DECREE of the Emperor of Brazil, declaring the Port of Bahia, occupied by Portuguese Troops, in a state of Blockade.—29th March, 1823. (Translation.) It being one of my most sacred duties, as Constitutional Emperor und Perpetual Defender of this Empire, to take every measure auhorized by the Law of Nations, to secure the tranquillity of the State, und to repel force by force; and it being notorious that the Portuguese Troops who make War on this Empire remain in Bahia, because the Fort of that City is open and free; I am pleased to declare, as I do leclare, the said Port in a state of rigorous Blockade. The entry of Il Vessels whatever, National or Foreign, Men of War or Merchant Vessels, is henceforth prohibited, during so long as the Portuguese

Troops shall continue there; and all Vessels which may in any manner act contrary to this my Imperial Decree, shall be liable to the penalties established in similar cases by the Law of Nations.

Luis da Cunha Moreira, my Councillor of State, Minister and Secretary of State for the Affairs of Marine, will so understandit, and cause it to be executed, sending the necessary Instructions.

Palace of Rio de Janeiro, 29th March, 1823. Second of Indopendence and of the Empire.

[His Imperial Majesty's Initials]


REPORT of the Minister of Finance to the Emperor of Brazil.—26th September, 1823. (Extract.) (Translation "If, in 1812, in spite of intrigue and cabal, I dared to remove the thick and mysterious veil which covered the then Royal Treasur persuaded that the extinction of patriotism and publick disquietek keep pace with publick distress, and that the ruin of States, and the fall of Empires are the consequences of financial disorders, whilst ther is never any cause for apprehension, so long as, by a wise administrotion, the Publick Revenue is sufficient to defray the Publick Expenses. I now feel it my bounden duty, in this season of our Independer and Liberty, possessed of a General, Constituent, and Legislative A+ sembly of this Empire, to render an account of the condition in who I found the Publick Treasury, when, on the 21st of July last, I entered on my functions as Chief of that Department. In doing so, I shallo confine myself to a bare exposition of the state of the National finances but, impelled by the desire of contributing to the publick welfare asse as my talents and experience allow me, I shall point out the mean which suggest themselves to my mind, for extricating us from our preses embarrassments, and for enabling us to raise this nascent Empire to the strength, opulence, splendour, and consideration, of which it issuscotible, and for which it has so many capabilities, in order that the Gener. Constitutional, and Legislative Assembly may afterwards deliberates my Report, and adopt such measures as it may deem expedient. The delay which has occurred in presenting my ideas, from the 21s of July to the present time, should not excite surprise. My Repor embraces the accounts which I immediately required from all branche of the Treasury. It was necessary to ascertain the amount of to receipts and expenditures as far as it was practicable; the Public Debt, active and passive; and the extraordinary resources which had been provided to meet the extraordinary demands; but, as no Statements existed to further the prompt execution of my order to that effect, notwithstanding the assiduity and zeal of the officers of the Treasury, I have only recently received the documents containing the information detailed in my Report. I could not therefore, till now, present to your Imperial Majesty the state of the Treasury of Rio Janeiro at the end of June, in any thing like a correct form, or describe the particulars supplied by the Treasury, respecting the publick financesof the other Provinces of the Empire of Brazil. o By the Account of Receipt and Expenditure for the first 6 months of 1823, No. 1, your Imperial Majesty will perceive all the expences, of that half Year, and the amount of monies that have been paid into the publick coffers; the sum remaining in the Treasury, at the end of June, being 278,103 Milreas. By the Account, however, No. 2, your Majesty will see, that on the 30th of June, when the balance was struck, there was only in the Trea-l sury a disposable sum of 210,014 Milreas, including in that amount 132,658 Milreas on the books of the customs, and deducting a sum of ) 70,000 Milreas of the decima, and of the interest of the loan which was about to be paid, besides other indispensable and extraordinary charges. By No. 8, your Majesty will learn that, out of the total proceeds of , he loan, voluntary gifts, subscription for the Navy, and sequestrations, , up to the 30th June, amounting to 596,304 Milreas, there has been exrended of those extraordinary resources the sum of 386.289 Milreas. No. 4 will make known to your Majesty, that, according to the estinate of the various receipts which may be expected in the next half 'ear, we shall obtain from the ordinary income of the Publick Treaury the sum of 1,769,000 milreas. * = o By the Estimate of expences, No. 5, your Majesty will find the pplication to be made of that sum.—Imperial Household, 96.2005. sinistry of War, 625,560; Marine, 294,000; Treasury, 753,240, By the Estimate, No. 6, the extraordinary charges will amount to a }0,000 milreas. * :The Estimate, No. 7, of the Publick, Debt, at the end of 1821, shows, . at the Treasury was then under obligation for 9,870,918 milreas. . . By the state of the Publick Debt, presented in No. 8, your Majesty Ilsee, that in June, 1822, this Debt amounted to 10,176,580. milreas, , ing an increase of 305,662 milreas in six months. . . . . ) No. 9 shows, that at the end of June, 1823, this Debt amounted , 12,055,582 milreas, to which, adding the sum of 100,563 milreas, en entered into the Treasury, as the proceeds of sequestrations, the ount will be 12,156,145 milreas, being an increase in one Year of , 79,565 milreas. * ! * * * No. 10 exhibits this increase under the different heads. . . . . By the Accounts No. 11, the income and expenditure of the respec- . provinces of Minas Geraes, Goiaz, Matto Grosso, Santa Cathe1, Rio Grande do Sul, and S. Paulo, will appear. The annual cit of Minas Geraes amounts to near 60,000 milreas ; that of Goiaz near 20,000; that of Matto Grosso to 10,544; that of Santa Cathe- s 1, to 34,870; making in all more than 125,000 milreas.


No. 12 shews that the other provinces of spirito Santo, Baba Pernambuco, Rio Grande, Alagoas, Parahiba, Piauhy, Ceara, M. ranhao, and Para, are likewise in arrear; and that of Santo Spiń. to an annual deficit of 33,172 milreas. By this simple and clear statement, your Majesty will perceiv that I have been placed at the head of a Treasury, indebted at thee, of June to the amount of nearly 30,500,000 of Crusadoes (abo £2,500,000 sterling), daily beset with its Creditors, who justly demo the money due to them; and without possessing any extraordinant sources to meet the extraordinary charges, which, at a moderate calo tion, amount to 900,000 milreas. From none of the Provinces of: Empire can we at present expect assistance; nay, we shall be obliged extend assistance to them, as has already been done, to the amour nearly 280,000 milreas annually. Notwithstanding the activity into lecting the Taxes, and an exact controul of the expences, it has he necessary to recur to Loans, Donations, naval Contributions, and” Sequestrations, yielding in all 1,000,000 of Crusadoes. It is also dent, that, notwithstanding the hope of the happiest results to the system of administration which the wisdom of the Geo Constituent Assembly will doubtless establish, these results" not be sufficient for the payment of 30,500,000 of Crusadees. at the same time provide for the ordinary and extraordinary to necessary for the consolidation of an Empire, where everything he be created, and where it is necessary to extend a liberal and geneo hand, if we desire to establish our independence, and be re among Nations of the first order. The consequenees of not ho its obligations are terrible at all times to States, but how muchespecially must they be so, in the dangerous season of our politics generation, when we ought to avoid creating distrust, and seek wo offmisery and distress from the PublickServants and National Creo Leaving out of view the payment of the future ordinary expo for which provision will, no doubt, be made by the imposition offI shall advert to an operation in aid of our credit which I thinkino sable under present circumstances. Great resources are necessaryble the Constitutional Chief of this rising Empire to consolidateo dependence, to defend us from our enemies, to promote instruction publick prosperity, according to the Laws and Constitution of ho These means have been offered to us by English capitalisso solicitation." Such is the idea which they form of the resourcesano uberant wealth of the new Empire, as of those of other Nations of Eand America, and such the interest they take in the establishmento zilian independence. By the proposal, No. 13, which Ireceivedo 20th of July, your Majesty will see the offer of a loan of the so 2,500,000 milreas, and the conditions required for prompt po £100,000 being promised per month for 5 successive months, so *the contractshall besanctioned by the Generalconstituentolo


lative Assembly, and even before all the terms of the Loan are definitively arranged in the market in London, which, when concluded, will place the rest of the Loan at the disposal of the Brazilian Nation. The conditions are so clear, that I think any further explanation unnecessary; it is no less clear, that the Assembly may have at its disposal 20,000,000 of crusadoes, to employ in any way it may think proper, to support the independence, and to develope the riches of Brazil. Without considerable means, we cannot accomplish so mighty an undertaking. The United States and the old Governments of Europe have resorted to loans in critical circumstances like ours. Let us not be apprehensive of distress or poverty in the Country of Gold and Diamonds. Let us profit by our resources; let us take advantage of the precious commodities which belong to us, to defend ourselves against our enemies. The first and most essential part of the operation, viz. the pros. pectus of the loan, has been prepared by an experienced London Banker, on the proposal of Edward Oxenford and other English capitalists. According to their plan, £2,500,000 sterling, to be advanced by them, will be employed in the following manner:The 8th part of £3,333,333 (the sum in stock, to be sold to obtain £2,500,000 at 75 per cent.) to be employed as a sinking fund................................... £416,666 To pay the two first six months' interest................... 200,000 For the Publick Service of Brazil........................... 1,883,334

£2,500,000 It would be of great consequence to us to have this Plan altered in the following manner:For sinking fund the first Year.............................. £60,000 To pay the interest the two first half Years............... 200,000 For the Publick Service of the Empire of Brazil....... 2,240,000

£2,500,000 It is clear, that, if the £416,666, the eighth part of £3,333,333, is necessary for a Sinking Fund at a compound interest of 4 percent to pay up the capital in 54 years, the same effect would followin?0 years, according to the above alteration, by an annual payment of £60,000, laid out at compound interest at 4 per cent. It is likewise clear, that, in the beginning of the 7th Year, the Sinking Fund, by my plan, would reach £473,896, which exceeds the £416,666 reserved for the fund of the London plan. It is easy to perceive, that were this change adopted, without esselitially altering the terms, we should obtain an

advantage of 27 millions of Crusadoes. MANUEL JACINTO NOGUEIRA DA GAMA.

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