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CHAPTER II.

UPWARD INFLECTIONS—THE BEND.

The bend is a slight upward turn of the voice, indicating primarily a pause of imperfect sense; as, “If there be any consolation in Christ', any comfort of love', any fellowship of the spirit', any bowels and mercies', fulfill ye my joy.” “The trials of wandering and exile', of the ocean, the wilderness, and the savage foe', were the final assurances of success."

NOTE.— The bend is deferred from “wandering” to “exile”. Ocean,” “wilderness," "savage foe,” are all in apposition with “wandering and exile”. If there were a bend on each member of the series, there would be no proper grouping. Instead of the bend, there is a slight suspension of the voice after “ocean” and “wilder

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The bend is marked with the acute accent.

The bend is employed :

a. In the intermediate pauses of declarative sentences (VII, p. 12); as,“Virtue' is the condition of happiness.” “In the autumn of 1873' the war had closed with glory.”

OBSERVATION.—When, however, the parts of a sentence are closely connected, the divisions are marked by a mere suspension of voice, without the upward bend; as, “To the perusal of the authors of the second class I shall now proceed.” “The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended.” (Vo bend at “class” and “David.”) A great deal of general effect in reading, especially in point of melody, depends on nice discrimination in this particular,

The bend is used also :

b. At the end of the declarative part of a semi-interrogative or semi-exclamatory sentence, when this part precedes the rest; as, " And he said', 'Is your father well, the old man of whom ye spake?'” “They said, therefore, unto him', 'Who art thou ??” “They will cry in the last accents of despair', 'Oh for a Washington, an Adams, or a Jefferson !'"

NOTE.-1. If the declarative part is very short, a pause may be used instead of a bend; as, “I ask,-What have we effected by this measure?

2. In a semi-interrogatory or semi-exclamatory sentence, the interrogative or exclamatory portion takes its own proper inflection (See CHAPS. III AND IV), as if it stood alone; and where it precedes, that inflection is communicated to the following declarative portion, which becomes a circumstance (XII, p. 14), by virtue of its position. For example, “ Art thou there?' cried he'."

“ Who art thou'? I inquired.” When, on the other hand, the declarative portion precedes, the partial close, instead of the bend, is employed (See CHAP. V, on the Partial Close, p. 52).

Again, the bend is employed :

c. To terminate the first part, and all the members of the first part, of a compact sentence (x, p. 13); as, “ If you know that the object is good', then seek it.” “Neither hath this man sinned', nor his parents."

OBSERVATION 1.- This is equally true, whether the correlative terms (Note, p. 14) are expressed or not; as, “[Though] a professed Catholic', [yet] he imprisoned the pope.” “As they have won an honorable station among independent states', [so] it becomes an imperative duty to treat them as such.”

OBSERVATION 2.—When the clauses of a compact sentence are inverted in order, the inflections proper to the direct order are retained; as, “ Unless I am greatly mistaken', the report is untrue.” “The report is untrue, unless I am greatly mistaken'.”

Again, the bend is employed :d. At compellatives (x1, p. 14), whether occurring at

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the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence; as, “Gentlemen', I rise to address you on one of the most interesting subjects that can engage the human mind." "I perceive, conscript fathers'; that every look, that every eye, is fixed on me." “How now, foolish rheum' ?

To this rule there are several exceptions. Thus, compellatives take the falling slide (See CHAP. IV):

(1) When they follow a very strong emphasis; as, “Get thee behind me, Satan'!” “Hence! home! you idle creatures!"

(2) When they are repeated for the purpose of being heard; as, “Mr. Speaker'! Mr. Speaker'!” “Hero' ! Why, cousin Hero'! Uncle'! Senior Benedick'!”

NOTE.-Implied, as well as actual, repetition may be expressed by the falling slide. Thus, in the illustration, “Hero” is repeated, while“Uncle” and “Senior Benedick” are delivered as if they, too, had been repeated.

OBSERVATION.—But when compellatives are repeated for any other purpose, the bend is magnified into the rising slide (See CHAP. III); as, “O my son Absalom'! my son, my son Absalom'!”

Again, compellatives take the falling slide :

(3) When they begin a letter, or a formal address; as, "General'! your orders have been obeyed.” “Romans, countrymen, and lovers'!” “Mr. John G. Robertson, Sir'."

Note.-In punishing a child you say—“Go into the closet, Johnny!!” If the bend is used after “Johnny,” it makes the latter word a circumstance merely, and not a rebuke.

Finally, the bend is employed :

e. At a parenthesis, when following a part of a sentence making imperfect sense; as, “ We hold, you know, (and rightly too') that all government is, or ought to be, made for the benefit of the people." (See CHAP. V, on the Partial Close, p. 53.)

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NOTE.-As a parenthesis has no individuality, it takes its coloring from what precedes.

OBSERVATION 1.-Indefinite interrogatives (VIII, p. 13) in parenthesis follow this rule, take the rising or the falling slide, according to the degree of emphasis required; as, with bend: “And what (why ask me') is to save us from these abuses ?”; with rising slide: “I wished (why should I deny it'?) that it had been my case instead of my sister's" ; with falling slide: “Lend it not as to thy friend, (for when did friendship take a breed of barren metal of his friend'?), but lend it rather to thine enemy.”

OBSERVATION 2.-How the bend and other inflections are modified by the intervention of emphasis will appear when we come to consider that subject. (See CHAP. VII, on the Effect of Emphasis on Other Inflections, p. 77.)

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE IN THE USE OF THE BEND.

Intermediate Pauses.

Ignorance is the mother of error.
One ounce of gold is worth fifteen ounces of silver.
That interesting history he did not read.
At the bottom of the gardeniran a little rivúlet.
With his conduct last evening I was not pleased.

In the prodigious efforts of a veteran army, beneath the dazzling splendors of their array, there is something revolting to a reflecting mind.

I shook myself, turned away, and tried to persuade myself that I had not been dreaming.

The Faust of Goethe, tired of the barrier round of earthly knowledge, calls magic to his aid.

Perhaps the greatest master of English prose in the present century, not excepting even Macaulay, is Thomas De Quincey.

In the midst of this widespread ruin, among tottering columns and falling edifices, one fabric alone stood erect, and braved the storm.

You may be assured, gentlemen, of my continued regard.

So long as sun, moon, and planets were supposed to be angels; so long as the sword of Orion was not a metaphor, but a fact, and the groups of stars which inlaid the floor of heaven were the glittering trophies of the loves and wars of the Pantheon,-so long there was no science of astronomy.

To give to the noblest thoughts the noblest expression; to penetrate the souls of men, and make them feel as if they were new creatures, conscious of new powers and loftier purposes; to make truth and justice, wisdom and virtue, patriotism and religion, holier and more majestic things than men had ever dreamed them to be before; to delight as well as to convince; to charm, to win, to arouse, to calm, to warn, to enlighten, and to persuade, this is the function of the orator.

The sick, untended then,
Languished in the dark shade, and died afar from men.
His native hills that rise in happier climes,
The grot that heard his song of other times,
His cottage home, his bark of slender sail,
His glassy lake, and broomwood-blossomed vale,
Rush on his thoughts.

Should such a man, too fond to rule alone,
Bear, like the Turk, no brother near the throne,
View him with scornful, yet with jealous eyes,
And hate for arts that caused himself to rise;
Damn with faint praise, assent with civil leer,
And without sneering teach the rest to sneer ;
Willing to wound, and yet afraid to strike,
Just hint a fault, and hesitate dislike;
Alike reserved to blame, or to commend,
A tim'rous foe, and a suspicious friend;
Dreading even fools, by flatterers besieged,

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