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b. There should be a pause before the second emphasis, to draw attention particularly to the thought.

(3) Sometimes the repeated word is used in a new sense, and actually requires a discriminating emphasis; as, “A fool with judges, among fools, a judge.

(4) Emphasis, like any other inflection, may be repeated to indicate apposition of words or phrases; that is, the terms in apposition receive similar inflections; as, “A hoop of gold, a paltry ring!"

(5) Cumulative emphasis (the form in which the discriminating function is least, and the enforcing function greatest) involves repetition; as, “I tell you, 1-willnot-do-it."

The wave of emphasis, in declarative or declarative exclamatory sentences, begins at the first pause * preceding the emphatic word, and extends to the first pause succeeding it, unless another emphasis intervene; in which case the new emphasis follows the same law, and the process continues until a pause, either of perfect or imperfect sense, is reached; as, “The Americans may become faithful friends of the English, but subjects, never."

In illustrating this example, let the following diagrams represent the three emphatic waves :

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The first, beginning with the sentence, gradually rises to the emphatic word “friends”: here it culminates, and descends to the first pause, at the word “ English”,

* "Pause,” in this connection, is to be considered quite independently of punctuution,

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where it turns upward, coinciding with the bend (which is due at that point). The second follows the same process, though more briefly, with the words "but subjects”. The third is developed entirely on the single word “never”, turning downward, however, partly to give greater intensity to the emphasis (b, p. 74), and partly to coincide with the perfect close (a, p. 74). The different degrees of eminence in these different waves will also be remarked; the rise of the sweep being less and less unto the end.

As instances of the intervention of a second emphasis between the emphatic word and the succeeding pause, take the threat of Cassius to Brutus, and the retort of the latter, in Shakespeare's "Julius Cæsar":

higher
I may do that I shall be sorry for."

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2 “You have done that you should be sorry for.” NOTE.-Let the pupil here practice the wave, first suppressing the second emphasis, and afterwards supplying it.

OBSERVATION 1.-It follows from this limitation of the wave of emphasis, that when the emphatic word is very near the panse, preceding or succeeding, the adjacent portion of the wave will be very short,* sometimes so much so, that its waving character will be scarcely perceptible; as, “Other misfortunes may be borne, or their effects overcome." “Though he will not rise and give him because he is his friend, yet, because of his importunity, he will rise and give him as many as he needeth."

OBSERVATION 2.-When the emphatic word is immediately preceded and followed by a pause, the wave is developed on that word alone; as, “Necessity' is the mother of invention.” “War' is the law of violence; peace', the law of love.” “Still, it may be well for some proud men to remember," etc.

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* If the pupil doubts whether an emphatic word has the curved form, because the curve is very short, let him drawl it out, and he will find that it makes a sweep.

OBSERVATION 3.—The subject, especially when it consists of a single word in the beginning of a sentence, should, as a rule, be separated from its verb by a slight pause.

To this rule there are several exceptions. Thus :

(1) When the emphasis falls on the last, or nearly the last, word of the division, followed by a circumstance, the wave is developed on the circumstance, notwithstanding the pause; as, “But youth, sir, is not my only crime.” “Wait, gushing life, oh, wait my love's return !” “Had you been placed in similar circumstances, you would have felt it too, perhaps.” When one or more circumstances precede the emphasis, the wave includes them, notwithstanding the punctuation; as, “ It is then, Sir, upon the principle of this measurethat we are at issue.”

(2) In sentences having correlative parts, with the logical order of the parts reversed, when the last, or nearly the last, word of the first part is emphasized, the wave is developed on both parts, notwithstanding the pause; * as,

“No sleep till morn, when youth and pleasure meet,

To chase the glowing hours with flying feet.” (3) The emphatic wave is sometimes arrested at its culminating point, and developed in the falling slide.

This occurs in the following cases :

* Prof. Raymond was not sure that this rule applies in every case. He told the class that the following statement is probably correct :

"If the reversion of parts obliterates the rhetorical pause, the rule will apply, but not if the pause is retained.

The rule applies in the two following examples :-
Logical order,-'If I go to-morrow, you can go.'
Logical order reversed,- You can go if I go to-morrow.'
The rule does not apply in the two following examples :-
Logical order,-'Though a professed Catholic, he imprisoned the pope.'

Logical order reversed,--He imprisoned the pope, though a professed Catholic.'"-B. C.

a. When the emphasis falls upon a word at or just preceding partial or perfect close; as, "Delicacy leans more to feeling ; correctness, more to reason and judgment.” “If the gentleman provoke war, he shall have war.” “In this respect, sir, I have a great advantage over the honorable gentleman.”

b. When the emphasis is very strong (so strong that it carries down with it all that follows); as, “It is not true that he played the traitor to his country in the hour of trial." "I say it is the moon that shines so bright.”

c. When the emphatic word represents an object used in illustration or comparison, with like, as, and other similar words; as, “Charity, like the sun', brightens every object on which it shines." "She sat, like patience on a monument', smiling at grief."

d. When the emphatic word is preceded by an intensive particle, expressed or understood; as, “Though they lost the esteem of the world, though their nearest and dearest relatives forsook them, nay, though even the sanctity of life was invaded, yet they held to their faith unshaken.” “If they had wealth, if they had [even] a competency, many think they could be happy."

e. When the emphatic word is the last of a series; as,

“ Tell thou the silent sky, And tell the stars, and tell yon rising sun, Earth, with her thousand voices, praises God."

NOTE.- For purposes of marking, the usual underscoring of the emphatic word is sufficient to show the culmination of the wave, while the acute or grave accent at the end will indicate its limit, and its upward or downward development.

CONCENTRATION OF EMPHASIS.

One of the most common faults in reading is the multiplication of emphasis. As the office of this inflection is to discriminate, it follows, that the more words there are that receive this mark, the less discrimination there will be; and we are driven to the paradoxical conclusion that a sentence over-emphasized to make it strong must be thereby weakened. Not every word to which this distinction belongs in theory should receive it in practice. It will be found to conduce both to strength and euphony to confine the emphasis to as few words as possible in the sentence—if it may be, even to a single word,

NOTE.- Even if there are other emphases in the sentence, the strong emphasis can almost always be concentrated upon one word.

Among the expedients by which this end may be attained are the following:

(1) In a series (xiv, p. 15) consisting of two or more words or phrases connected together, and equally emphatic in theory, the emphasis is deferred till the last; as, “When or where I saw it, I am unable to say.” "Its tidings, whether of peace or woe, are the same to the poor, the ignorant, and the weak, as to the rich, the wise, and the powerful."

(2) When the emphatic word has a direct bearing on an expression immediately following, the emphasis is carried forward to some point in that expression.

Such an expression may be :

a. An inseparable adjunct (IV, p. 11; vi, Note, p. 12); as, “The highest art of the mind is to possess itself with tranquility in danger.” The emphasis is theoretically on “ tranquility,” but is deferred to “ danger,” because of the close connection.

b. A restrictive clause (VI, p. 12) *; as, “He who loves

* It does not matter very much which word in a restrictive clause is emphasized; it should be the one that contains the special idea.

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