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J^-1^'and to prevent the enemy from turning or taking

Htog-88?8'll la flan^« ^e nac^ P^ced the king in safety, *—v—-» behind a large body of cavalry, advising him to take the command of the reserve, in which he had mixed a great part of the infantry that he least .esteemed. The command of the left wing was given to a Polish nobleman, whose namchas not been preserved by'history. Hunniade was determined to begin the attack himself at the head of the right wing, and to continue it by the left. The legate and the bisiiops he had left with the king in the reserve, iadiflau* The Turks advanced in good order, carrying

ia killed, & , • ° , , , i

the confe- at the end of a lance the treaty broken by the

dn-ate'army" . n. .... , .... .

adtseated. Christians, upbraiding them with their perjury, and loudly promising to themselves victory or martyrdom. The Turkish army was almost a third more numerous than that of the Christians; but Hunniade's dispositions had deprived the enemy of every mean of surrounding them, or even of presenting a more extended front; which could facilitate their attacking them in flank. Amurath had placed almost all his infantry in the first line. Garafle, beglerbeg of Asia, commanded the right wing; Ali bashaw, beglerbeg of Europe, the left, and the emperor himself was in the centre. After fervent prayers on both fides, and short harangues from the chiefs, Hunniade charged the left wing of the Turks with as much order as vigour. The squadrons engaged gaged several times without effect:, shewing J-Cj1444. equal force and address: at length Hunniade Heg. 84s.

~ ° to 851.

found means to open the enemy's front ranks; <—-«—* the ardour of the horse, and the weight of their arms, presently routed them. The slaughter was terrible at the right, and the Hungarians might have flattered themselves with the victory, if Hunniade had been always obeyed. But the bishops, who surrounded Ladislaus, jealous of the waywode's victory, and more sanguinary than martial, pressed the Hungarian monarch to charge at the head of his corps. He accordingly ordered the squadrons that guarded his person to f open, and, marching with his infantry against the janissaries, he forced the latter to take vengeance, and to fall with fury on these bands which came against them. The victory was no longer in suspense; the whole confederate infantry was presently routed. The king of Hungary himself, surrounded on every side, was unable to withstand his numerous assailants; after having defended himself a long time, he was willing to surrender prisoner; but the janissaries, exaf. perated at the breaking of the truce, gave no quarter. All those who threw down their arms were massacred without mercy. The king of Hungary fell, pierced with wounds, in the middle of the janissaries. They cut off his head, and carried it against Hunniade, who had abandoned his attack to march to the king's assistance.

j.c. 1444. This spectacle terrified all the Christians, and

to 1448. *

Heg. 848, completed their defeat. Hunniade vainly en

to 85L r 3

*—v—> deavoured to recover his master's corpse, and the shameful trophy displayed by the Mahometans with so much ostentation. The name of perjurer, •which they continually repeated as they fought, or rather as they massacred the vanquished, roused in vain the courage of the Poles and Hungarians, who only offered themselves in greater number to the enemy's sword. The slaughter lasted 'till night. The two beglerbegs, each on his quanter, pursued the fugitives, numbers of whom were drowned in the Danube. The two bishops perished in the battle; the Christian army was entirely dispersed, and Amurath, the next day, had a pyramid, covered with pompous inscriptions, raised on the field of battle, by the side of a trophy composed of the arms of the vanquished.

Amurath The sultan made no use of this victory. - He

the throne had just lost two sons by a contagious disorder.

hissc"0 Either through grief at this loss, or dislike of government, he determined, after the battle of Varna, to resign the empire to his son Mahomet, who was only fifteen years old, leaving his two servants Garasse and Ali bashaw near the throne, to support their new master. We cannot divine the motives, that could induce Amurath to quit an empire, which he had extended and fortified, to leave it to a child. The Turkish historians pretend even that he abdicated the throne twice;



the first time before, and the second after the J-c- I4»4»

to 1448.

battle of Varna. But this improbable account Hcs- 8+8»

r to 851.

is denied by the Greek historians, more authentic *—v—» than the Turks, who do not always preserve the exactest memoirs. Be that as it may, Amurath, contented with his trophies, and With having punished perjurers, had the young Mahomet proclaimed emperor of the Turks in the city of Adrianople, and retired to Magnesia to give himself up to the repose and pleasures of sensuality, which neither the cares of war, nor of the throne, had ever made him forget.

Mahomet fixed his residence at Adrianople. Amurath The janissaries, accustomed to fear Amurath, theVhrone soon took advantage of the youth and inex- hisabdicaperience of his son. ' These fierce soldiers required a severe discipline, which could not be expected under the government of a child. Several riots at Adrianople cost the inhabitants, and even the janissaries, much blood. The managers of the public treasury took advantage likewise of their situation to apply the money to their own use, and to oppress the subjects. In less than four months the face of the empire was entirely changed. In the midst of peace abroad, which had been so seldom seen, there never was so much confusion. 'Till then the emperors had executed every thing themselves; the viziers had not yet gotten that authority which they have since acquired under a long succession of effe

P minate

j.c. 1444, rrvinate princes. The soldiers and all the ministers

to 144S. *

Hcg. 848, were accustomed to receive their orders from the

to 851.

u~v-*.» sovereign himself. Kalil, Garasse, and Ali, who were charged with assisting the young emperor, saw that the empire would soon run to ruin, if it were not sustained by more powerful hands. They roused Amurath, who was giving himself up to his pleasures, and conjured him to come to the assistance of his empire and family. They did not dare propose to the young sultan a voluntary abdication; for, notwithstanding his inability, Mahomet was already grown fond of authority. Amurath set out privately from Magnesia, and Kalil invited the young sultan to a hunting party, which was to last several days. During this interval, Amurath arrived at Adrianople, and shewed himself to the people, who received him with transport. He went to the divan, and had all the malecontents punished. All the odas of janissaries immediately returned to their duty. After seven days absence, Mahomet, on his return from the hunting party, found his father settled on his throne; he was ordered to go to Magnesia, to wait 'till age should have taught him to command. The young prince obeyed without a murmur, and Amurath presently rectified all the faults committed by his son.

Amurath During the war with Hungary, there had

reduces the « 1 1 1 1 *•

despot or happened what was always the consequence :Morea. wjjen anv p0Wer rosc up against the Turks. All


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