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J.C. 1327, subjects, whom he sent to repeople the places leaft

to 1360. Heg. 727, inhabited. The sultan, seeing that his new do

minions wanted cultivators, repaired, by the extreme care that he took of the children, the loss of their fathers, sacrificed in too great a number at his conquest. He established in every town a cadi, a judge that was to be responsible to the bashaw or governor of the province. These officers began forthwith to render a speedy and arbitrary justice, alone known in the Ottoman

empire. J.C. 1330. Of all Orcan's conquests, Nice cost him most

time and men. He remained two years before that place, which was defended with more resolution than the Greeks had shown a long time. Orcan made use of war engines that were then in use for battering walls, but which could not be erected without much bloodshed. When the breaches were open, the besieged demanded solely the liberty of retiring to Constantinople. Orcan, not only granted them their request, but he permitted even those who wished to change their residence to carry away their property. This generosity retained at Nice a great many citizens, who, in hopes of being governed with justice, continued to dwell in their own country, paying tribute to the conqueror. Several even embraced Inainism. Orcan took care to provide advantageously for all the women that were become

widows :


izes the


widows during the fiege of Nice, and from whom J.C. 1336,

to 1360." children might yet be hoped for. . Heg. 736,

As yet Orcan had only made war with the Greeks. Full of his father's maxims, he pretended, or at least he published, that the Mussulmen ought not to turn 'their arms against one another, and that the sword of a true Belieyer should never be dipped but in the blood of Infin poffeffic dels. This prejudice encouraged the foldiers, emirs. and made their sultan appear to them as a minister of the decrees of God; but it likewise seemed to forbid Orcan the hope of ever reigning over these countries near him, which Mahometan emirs poffefied of the ruins of the Selgieucid empire. The children of the emirs that had di. vided Natolia with Othman I. had made new partitions between them, which weakened their power. This division of the Mussulman forces presented a fine field for the avidity of Orcan. The sultan obtained by fraud what he durft not take by force. Being become the most powerful of the Mussulman princes, he caused himself to be proclaimed guardian to an emir, the grandson of Sarkan, who, as yet but a child, inherited the throne of his father. The new guardian took possession of the dominions of Rasim his ward; he garrisoned his towns, under pretence of defending them, and gathered the impofts which this prince-drew from his subjects, in order, as he said, to economize them for pressing occa


to 1360.

J.C.1336, fions. The feeble ward never durst afterwards Heg. 736, reclaim rights which no one could enforce. He to 761.

died the subject of a prince, who had called himself his protector and ally in order to wrest from him his patrimony.

Another emir, grandson likewise of Sarkan, young and without experience, amazed at the rapid success and power of Orcan, resolved to resign to him his estate, which consisted of five towns, separated by some plains, forming together a small province, of which Pergamo was the capital. This emir was called Turfonbeg. Agilbeg, his younger brother, irritated at the proposal of resigning to a ravisher the inheritance of his father, and of giving the subjects of his house a foreign master, declared, that he would defend the sceptre which his brother abandoned so cowardly, and endeavoured to get himself acknowledged emir in his place. As this dif

ference had occasioned a civil war, Orcan per.-.-, suaded the two brothers to spare Mussulman

blood, and to treat this affair amicably in a place agreed upon. Agilbeg no way dissembled to his elder brother the contempt which he held him in; the discussion became a quarrel, and finished by a single combat, in which Tursonbeg was killed. The vanquisher took refuge in Pergamo, resolved to sell dearly his patrimony to the ambitious Orcan, who, become the avenger of the blood of his ally, and of a fratricide which he


passes the

pretended was a treachery, seized this pretext to J.C.1336,

to 1360." turn all his forces against the unfortunate Agilbeg. Heg: 736,

to 761. This prince did not make so long a resistance as w e his despair might have enabled him to. Some traitors delivered him and his capital to Orcan, who soon took possession of his state, and shut up Agilbeg in prison, where he died, after two years of the hardest captivity.

Orcan, master of Natolia proper, and of the Solyman borders of the sea which separates Alia from fea & takes

Gallipolis Europe, longed to penetrate into this rich partai of the world, to attack the Greeks there, whom he had already vanquished on his own ground. Solyman, the son of Orcan, a young warrior full of ambition and courage, wished for conquest still more ardently than his father; but the Oro tomans, used to fight only by land, had neither vessels, nor pilots, nor constructors; they wanted even fishing barks, and every mean of at-tempting this element, more redoubtable perhaps for those that understand it, than for those who have never experienced it; at least Solyman risked what the most experienced seaman would have thought impracticable. Since the sultan had made himself master of all the sea coast, the Greek emperor had published a decree, which forbade, under pain of death, the putting of any vessel, or even bark, on the Bosphorus of Thrace, or on the straits of Gallipoli; flattering himself that this barrier would be always impenetrable

OTTOMANS. J.C. 1335, to the efforts of Orcan. Solyman, having made

to 1360. Heg. 736, a hunting party, arrived by a fine moon light on to 761. in the borders of the straits, at the head of eighty

determined men. He constructed three rafts of thin plank, fastened on corks and ox bladders tied by the neck, and thus risked himself and attendants to cross five leagues of sea on these frail skiffs, by the aid of long poles which served him as oars and even rudders. This rash enterprise succeeded beyond the wishes of Solyman. He arrived, without the least accident, at the foot of the castle of Hanni in Europe. Both the night and the moon favored him. He met a peasant at break of day going to work. This man, enslaved by fear and gained by gold, introduced the Turkish prince, by a subterraneous passage, into the castle of Hanni (the ancient Sestos). There was no garrison in this place, as the Greeks thought it fufficiently defended by the sea; all was still hushed in profound Neep. Solyman made himself master of the castle, and having assembled the principal inhabitants, he addressed them in the most flattering terms, and made use of the most magnificent promises, to persuade these Greeks, who were all pilots or failors, and moreover very little attached to their prince, to take the vessels which they had in two small ports just by, and conduct them to the other side of the strait, to embark four thousand Turks, who were there attending him. In a few


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