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Orcan's fonskon quer the rrstof Thrace*

i

J-c - I336» entered all the places that fell in their way,

to 1360. ' I J *

Kes- 736. showing every where more cruelty even than Wv—» valour, massacring unmercifully all those that did not surrender at the first onset. This manner of making war, unknown in Europe, terrified the whole country. The European warriors prided themselves on their generosity to the vanquished.. The Greeks especially made a point of regarding men's lives;/they punished crimes only by mutilations. What then must have been their terror, when' they were attacked by barbarians, who took pleasure in destroying them,, and whose ferocity seemed to augment with the facility that they founcTto satiate it? At first the unhappy inhabitants of the Greek empire shut themselves up in the strong towns, which served them but a short time for an asylum, after which they fled into Italy, and spread themselves over the other parts of Europe, where they carried with them their taste for the sciences and the fine a/ts.

Notwithstanding his ferocity, Amurath sought subjects; he repassed the sea on the approach of autumn, carrying with him into Asia more slaves -ithan soldiers. He designed them to repeople the countries which his forefathers had laid waste. But despotism, still more destructive than a momentaneous ferocity, has rendered all these' transmigrations useless. The Ottoman provinces always appear like countries desolated: the Arabjans. overrun with impunity those of Asia,

setting setting a ransom upon the travellers and caravans. J-0-1^,

° x to 1360.

The opulent cities of Athens-, Sparta, Ephesus, Hes- 736.
Antioch, and many others, are eclipsed by their «—v—»'
passed splendor: the rubbish of their sumptuous '<
buildings fills up their ground plot: these are
miserable habitations, built on one side of those
ruins which bear their famous names.

Meanwhile, Solyman laid siege to Adrianople, which he made himself master of at the end of nine months, in 1360.

Whilst this young prince was thinking only Death of of increasing his heritage and glory, an accident andofOrcut the thread of his life. As he was exercising sather. his cavalry at the long bow in the plains of Adrianople, an unruly horse ran away with him, and having run against a large tree, Solyman was crushed with the blow, and expired immediately. His father, Orcan, grieved to the very heart at this loss, survived him but two months; he died at the age of seventy, after a reign of thirty-five years. This prince owed his greatest successes to his son Solyman,.whom he had taught to van-' quish and to deceive like himself. Fraud and cruelty composed all his policy, which was sufficient against enemies timid and divided. Under Orcan, the Turkish state took a new force; its future grandeur might easily be foreseen by the progress that it had already made. Orcan established in his dominions more order than could, be expected from an unjust prince and a barbarous

people;

s people; but the worst hearts are willing to have those they govern just; they know that no society can subsist without it. The sultan was interred at Bursa in the year 1360 of jesus Christ, 761 of the Hegira,

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AMURATH I.

THIRD REIGN.

Amurath AMURATH was forty one years old when tiieTMHn" his father left him the sceptre. In order to

"aS.ofHe impose on the people, he affected an exterior fcvCTaV" piety, and took a Persian surname, which sigprinces, & ni&es, sent from God. He fixed his residence T^«t.the at Adrianople as soon as he began his reign; but he was hardly established there, before he was obliged to repass into Asia to quell a sedition. History does not name, either the seditious, or the place of their assembly. All that we know is, that some bashaws, believing Amurath too much occupied with his conquests in Europe to be able to think of maintaining his power in Asia, attempted to shake off the yoke; that the sultan, who had just concluded a treaty with the Greek emperor, John Paleologus, passed the straits of Gallipoli, marched against the rebels, vanquished and dispersed them in a single battle. The sultan tan soon returned to Europe, where, according ^^f0' to Calcohdilus, he flew on the wings of love. Hes- 7«1»

to 791.

The second year of his reign he took the town v—v—» of Phera* from the Triballians,f who had takeni it themselves from the Greek emperor; he then attacked the despot of Servia, but was so favorable to this feeble enemy, as to spare his troops, and even his country, on condition of his giving his daughter in marriage to the vanquisher. Amurath certainly had never seen this princess, for in that age, the Greek women were nearly as much sequestered as the Mahometan ones. If Amurath purchased the hand of the princess of Servia at the price of a province, it was without doubt on the reputation of her beauty. Moreover, Amurath was certain of conquering Servia the first moment he Ihould take the pains to enter it. He reduced some Misian and Triballian despots; he imposed even personal taxes on those of their subjects who persisted in Christianity; but those who had borne arms, and would become MufTulmen, were enrolled among the spahis. The sultan distributed lands to some others, on condition of their entertaining during a war a horse and some soldiers proportionably to the value of their possession. In this manner he attached them to his service by favors, which he could deprive them of at every in

E . stant,

* Phera was on the frontiers of Macedonia, on the borders of Servia, and served as a rampart to that Drovince.

f People of Bulgaria and Servia.

J.c-1360, ftant ancj that were to pass to their eldest son*

to 1309. * *

Hes- 761. only on the fame condition; even at this day,

to 791. J * *

«—ir—» these military benefices, called dinars, given by
Amurath I. or by his successors, are so in the
hands of the prince, that a timarian is as much
afraid of losing the inheritance that he possesses,
whether from his father or the emperor, as if it
were a daily pay which the least discontent or
caprice could take from him.
Heesta- Amurath paid still more attention to his

janissaries, infantry, which he justly regarded as the-Prin

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cipal force of armies. He established the corps of janissaries as we fee it at this day: and, rj by the advice of Kara Ali his grand vizier, he ordered, that the fifth part of the slaves that should be made from the enemy, (for the Turks call their prisoners of war by no other name,) should belong to the sultan, and that these foreigners, having embraced Jflamism,* should form a new corps, which Amurath fixed at ten thousand men, but it was afterwards considerably augmented. He divided them into odas or chambers, at the head of which he appointed

particular

* The Turkish emperors regard all those that become Mussulmen as subjects. Submission to the Alcoran implies always the privilege of naturalization. A renegade is sometimes prime minister of the empire. There is no other rank in Turkey than that of employments, and every Mussulman, without distinction, is capable of being appointed. The slaves taken ir> war, or given by tributary nations, if they are brought up from insancy in the Mussulman religion, or in military discipline, either in the seraglio or in some oda, are much surer of succeeding to high employs, than the inhabi tants of towns.

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