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J.C.1336, entered all the places that fell in their way, to 1360. Heg. 736, showing every where more cruelty even than

valour, massacring unmercifully all those that did Orcan’s not surrender at the first onset. This manner of quer the making war, unknown in Europe, terrified the Thrace. whole country. The European warriors prided

themselves on their generosity to the vanquished.. The Greeks especially made a point of regarding men's lives; they punished crimes only by mutilations. What then must have been their terror, when they were attacked by barbarians, who took pleasure in destroying them, and whose ferocity seemed to augment with the facility that they found to satiate it? At first the unhappy inhabitants of the Greek empire shut themselves up in the strong towns, which served them but a short time for an asylum, after which they fed into Italy, and spread themselves over the other parts of Europe, where they carried with them their taste for the sciences and the fine arts.

Notwithstanding his ferocity, Amurath fought fubjects; he repassed the sea on the approach of autumn, carrying with him into Afia more slaves than soldiers. He designed them to repeople the countries which his forefathers had laid waste, But despotism, still more destructive than a momentaneous ferocity, has rendered all these transmigrations useless. The Ottoman provinces always appear like countries desolated: the Arabjans overrun with impunity those of Asia,

setting

to 761.

Solyman,

setting a ransom upon the travellers and caravans. J.C. 1336,

to 1360. The opulent cities of Athens, Sparta, Ephesus, Heg. 736, Antioch, and many others, are eclipsed by their passed fplendor : the rubbish of their sumptuous buildings fills up their ground plot: these are miserable habitations, built on one side of those ruins which bear their famous names.

Meanwhile, Solyman laid siege to Adrianople, which he made himself master of at the end of nine months, in 1360.

Whilst this young prince was thinking only Death of of increasing his heritage and glory, an accident and of O:

can his cut the thread of his life. As he was exercising father. his cavalry at the long bow in the plains of Adrianople, an unruly horse ran away with him, and having run against a large tree, Solyman was crushed with the blow, and expired immediately. . His father, Orcan, grieved to the very heart at this loss, survived hiin but two months; he died at the age of seventy, after a reign of thirty-five years. This prince owed his greatest successes to his son Solyman, whom he had taught to van.' quish and to deceive like himself. Fraud and cruelty composed all his policy, which was fufficient against enemies tiinid and divided. Under Orcan, the Turkish state took a new force; its future grandeur might easily be foreseen by the progress that it had already made. Orcan esta. blished in his dominions more order than could be expected from an unjust prince and a barbarous

people:

J.C.1360, people; but the worst hearts are willing to have
to 1389. H
Heg. 761, those they govern juft; they know that no fociety

can fubfift without it. The sultan was interred
at Bursa in the year 1360 of Jesus Christ, 761 of
the Hegira.

to 791.

A MURATH I.

de THIRD REIGN.

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Greek

Amurath A MURATH was forty one years old when

** his father lefç him the sceptre. In order to as of He impofe on the people, he affected an exterior fubjugates piety, and took a Persian surname, which fig

nifies, sent from God. He fixed his residence princes, & kounds the at Adrianople as soon as he began his reign ; but

he was hardly established there, before he was
obliged to repass into Asia to quell a fedition.
History does not naine, either the feditioụs, or
the place of their assembly. All that we know
is, that some bashaws, believing Amurath too
much occupied with his conquests in Europe to
be able to think of maintaining his power in Asia,
attempted to shake off the yoke; that the sultan,
who had just concluded a treaty with the Greek
emperor, John Paleologus, passed the straits of
Gallipoli, marched against the rebels, vanquished
and dispersed them in a single battle. The sul- .

tan

tan foon returned to Europe, where, according J.C. 1360,

ŏ to 1389. to Calcondilus, he flew on the wings of love. Hego 761,

to 791. The second year of his reign he took the town üm. of Phera* from the Triballians,t who had taken it themselves from the Greek emperor; he then attacked the despot of Servia, but was so favorable to this feeble enemy, as to spare his troops, and even his country, on condition of his giving his daughter in marriage to the vanquilher. Amurath certainly had never seen this princess, for in that age, the Greek women were nearly as much sequeftered as the Mahometan ones. If Amurath purchased the hand of the princess of Servia at the price of a province, it was without doubt on the reputation of her beauty. Moreover, Amurath was certain of conquering Servia the first moment he thould take the pains to enter it. He reduced some Milian and Triballian despots; he imposed even perfonal taxes on those of their subjects who perfift. ed in Christianity; but those who had borne arms, and would become Mussulmen, were enrolled among the spahis. The sultan distribute to some others, on condition of their entertaining during a war a horse and some soldiers proportionably to the value of their poffeffion. In this manner he attached them to his service by favors, which he could deprive them of at every in

E .

stant, * Phera was on the frontiers of Macedonia, on the borders of Servia, and served as a rampart to that province.

. People of Bulgaria and Servias

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the OTTOMANS. J.C.1360, ftant, and that were to pass to their eldest son,

to 1389. Heg. 761, only on the same condition: even at this day, to 791. w these military benefices, called timars, given by.

Amurath I. or by his successors, are so in the hands of the prince, that a timarian is as much afraid of losing the inheritance that he possesses, whether from his father or the emperor, as if it were a daily pay which the least discontent or

caprice could take from him. He esta Amurath paid still more attention to his janiffaries, infantry, which he justly regarded as the prin

cipal force of armies. He established the corps of janissaries as we see it at this day: and, by the advice of Kara Ali his grand vizier, he ordered, that the fifth part of the Naves that should be made from the enemy, (for the Turks

call their prisoners of war by no other name,) I should belong to the sultan, and that these

foreigners, having embraced Inamism,* should form a new corps, which Amurath fixed at ten thousand men, but it was afterwards considerably augmented. He divided them into odas or chambers, at the head of which he appointed

particular

* The Turkish emperors regard all those that become Mussulmen as subjects. Submission to the Alcoran implies always the privilege of naturalization. A renegade is sometimes prime minister of the empire. There is no other rank in Turkey than that of employments, and every Mussulman, without distinction, is capable of being appointed. The Naves taken in war, or given by tributary nations, if they are brought up from infancy in the Mussulman religion, or in military discipline, either in the seraglio or in fome oda, are much surer of succeeding to high employs, than the inhabitants of towns.

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