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the profoundest obfcurity. Selim was too much 1: 1518

Heg. 918. interested in his discovery, not to exert every effort. The unfortunate Korcut was, betrayed, and his brother had him strangled before he marched against Achmet. After this first facrifice to his fafety, he sent a small force to Amasia, in order to arrest the two sons of Achmet, às yet in their infancy. The vizier Mustapha, touched with compassion, caused the governors of these princes to be secretly advertised of it, who had time to call fome of their father's servants to their assistance. They attended, well armed, the bashaw who was to surprise them, and executed on him the lot that he intended for them. The sultan, having learned the death of his bashaw, and that his two victims were retired, the one to the foudan of Egypt, the other to the king of Persia, soon discovered by what means they had escaped. The grand vizier Mustapha paid with his head for this pretended treason. This was not the only one that the emperor had to punish. Several officers of his army wrote to prince Achmet to march as soon as poffible against his brother, without waiting for all the reinforcements which the king of Persia gave him hopes of. They promised to declare themselves in his favor at the first action, and to turn against Selim the

corps that they should command in his army. · The sultan having intercepted these letters, and

noticed their contents, carefully forwarded them

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at the head of fifteen

J.C. 1512. to him. Before he put their authors to death, Heg. 918.

h e obliged them, by force of torments, to write

still more prestingly to his brother. Achmet, deceived, haftened his arrival in Natolia at the

head of fifteen thousand men only. He placed Achmet is : vanquished his firmeft hopes in the resources that he thought

ad to have in the army of his brother; but he learnthengaand 'ed, when it was too late, that all his friends had Seorang lela been discovered and punished. The two armies

arrived in presence of each other : Achmet's, though on a single line, seemed to present the two flanks to be enveloped; for Selim, who had all the forces of Asia and part of those of Europe with him, had caused all the back parts and narrow passes, by which the enemy might escape, to be guarded. In this extremity, Achmet propoled to his brother to terminate their quarrel by single combat, in order to spare the blood of their subjects. But Selim was determined to vanquish, and not expose hirnself; he chose rather to oppose, a hundred and fifty thousand men against fifteen thousand, than run the risk of an equal combat. Achmet's little army was cut in pieces ; himself having had a horse killed under him, and being very corpulent, he could not disengage himself from the expiring animal; he was taken after having received some wounds, and his brother had hiin strangled on the field of battle.

of battle.


This was not all the blood that Selim thought :C.1513,

"Heg. 959 himself interested in shedding. The two sons a of Achmet who had Aed for refuge to Persia and Selim me. Egypt, excited his inquietude, and furnished him war with with a plausible pretext to arm against two pow-than pererful neighbours. The sultan, in order not to have too many enemies at a time, was willing to confirm the ancient treaties with the European powers. He fent ambassadors to Venice and the king of Hungary, as it was highly requisite for him to prevent an attack in Europe, whilst he should be setting Asia on fire, and particularly to preserve the liberty of the sea. As it was yet doubtful which of the two powers Selim would attack first, the king of Persia fent him an embaffy to treat of the interests of Solyman, the eldest son of the strangled prince Achmet. Among the presents, customary on such occasions, the Persians presented, for the first time, the new Alcoran corrected by their second prophet, and a lion of an uncommon size. Selim, whom the object of this embaffy displeased, made the presents which accompanied it a pretext for giving vent to his hatred. He fent in his turn ambasa sadors to carry as presents to the king of Persia the ancient 'Alcoran and the Sunna, which the followers of Ali don't admit. The ambassadors were likewise charged to present the Persian monarch with two large mastiffs, assuring him,

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L.C. 1513. that these mastiffs, well trained, strangled the

most terrible lions.

After these symbolical declarations, the two princes thought only of arming against each other. Ishmael's kingdom contained, at that time, Persia, Media, Mesopotamia, Assyria, and the further Armenia. Neverthelefs, his forces were not comparable to those of the Ottomans. Ishmael could raise a hundred thousand horse, but all this cavalry was not equally well disciplined; besides, the Persians did not understand fighting on foot, and wanted gunners and cannon. Their principal defence consisted in the extent and aridity of their deserts. For several days journey beyond the frontiers, the road was over burning fands, where there were neither houses, nor provisions, nor forage; no water any where, and no shelter from the scorching heat of the fun, but by clouds of fand raised by the wind, which blinded the travellers and horses. The moun

tains of Armenia, a country as arid as the fron· tiers of Persia, separated this state from the

Ottoman empire ; several tributary sovereigns divided, at that time, this poor province.

Aliadoulet, the most considerable of them, though the friend of the Turks, refused to join ; his troops to Selim's; he offered him only a para

sage, which his weakness did not permit him to refufe. He promised likewise for his army all the provisions that this wretched country should be


Heg. 919.

Heg. 920.

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gainst them

able to furnish; but his promises weçe far from 1.C.1513:
sincere. Aliadoulet, whose estates were not fe- Land
parated from the Ottoman empire, as they were
from the kingdom of Persia, by impracticable
deserts, was much more afraid of Selim than
Ishmael. All his hopes therefore were to see
the Turks overcome. The Turkish emperor
carried two hundred and thirty thousand men to
Persia; but, in such a distressing march, scarcity
and the inteinperature of the air were sufficient
to destroy the finest army.

The Turks advanced along the borders of the J.C.1514.
Euphrates, and sent on scouts before to examines

: He marthe country and see if the Persians were coming ches atowards them. They informed Selim that the in the defew inhabitants of this steril country had aban- trary to the

serts, condoned it, after having burnt their cottages and his vizier

y advice of ... even the herbs that grew around, and that all the

he whom he -wells were empoisoned or filled up. On this frangleda report, Camden, the new vizier, strongly opposed members in the army's entering these impracticable deserts, his march maintaining, that there would be too much difad- battle that vantage to make an offensive war in such a country: the Perif the Persian comes to us, said Camden, he will Tauris ;

the field of not ařrive 'till he has seen three parts of his troops battle i

left him, perish. If he wait for you in his best provinces, will you engage on an equal footing, when fatigue and famine shall have destroyed half your army? Will your remaining soldiers be capable of yanquishing fresh and numerous troops? This ad

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