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J.C. 1514• vice, too fage to be adopted by a prince who
Heg. 920.

would have nothing resist him, was strongly op-
posed by all those who had interest to please.
Camden, too prudent for the public good, was
not sufficiently so for his own ; his enemies ruined
him with the emperor, who caused to be stran-
gled, as a traitor, the only man who had dared
tell him salutary truths.
· Selim entered the deserts of Persia, relying
upon the provisions promised him by Aliadoulet,
king of Armenia, and on what he should procure
from his own country. But the Armenians, far
from furnishing him with succours, intercepted
the convoys, which passed through their territo-
ries ; so that, in less than six days, this numerous
army was reduced to the sole resource of some bitter
fruits, which foon caused a general dysentery. The
sultan was obliged to keep along the borders of
the Euphrates, for fear of wanting water, but the
famine which devoured his army, excited mur.
murs, and announced to him an approaching
revolt, when they learned that the Persians were
coming to engage them. Though the army was
already diminished one-third, this report restored
courage to the foldiers. They were told that
the Persians, much less numerous than them.
selves, had in their retinue a great abundance
and immense riches. And indeed, this army,
composed entirely of cavalry, had brought pro-
visions on a multitude of camels. Nay, they


were told, that gold and precious stones sparkled J.C. 1514.

Heg. 920. every where among the Persians. The Turks thought themselves already in possession of these riches, and considered the enemy's army, less as an obstacle to their conquest, than as a certain occasion of enriching themselves. It was composed only of forty thousand horse, but under the exactest discipline, and keeping the finest order. The Persians were armed with cimeters, arrows, and clubs; for, as we have already faid, they did not yet know how to found cannon. The two monarchs longed to engage. They joined near Tauris, the first Persian town in the plain of Calderan.

The familhed Turks were not less desirous than their emperor of coming to action. As soon as Selim saw the Persians in sight; he sent and summoned them to give up Solyman ; on their re . fusal, he ranged his troops in order of battle, always placing in the front the corps on which he least depended, reserving his spahis, janisfaries, and artillery, for the moment, when the Persians, drunk with carnage, should chink themselves victorious. The policy of the Turks, particularly that of Selim, did not sufficiently value human blood. This prince, without considering that a man taken at hazard may become a brave warrior by long usage and strict discipline, thinking still less, that the man who is but an indifferent soldier, may be useful in cultivating

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1.C.1574. land and for population, faw only in the multi-
Heg. 920.

tude of national forces, levied in haste to increase
his ariny, victims whom he offered to the dangers
of war, whilst he reserved his good troops for im-
portant occasions. In effect, at the battle of
Tauris, the Persians at first made a great slaugh-
ter; but when their squadrons feparated to pur-
sue those who fled, the janissaries and spahis fell
in order on their dispersed troops. The artillery
of the Turks, well served, reached them at a
great distance. The squadrons being broken,
the spahis took advantage of the disorder, and
attacked, with their long lances, those who had
lost their ranks. Never was there a more bloody
battle; the Persians did not fee 'till after hav-
ing seen sixteen thousand of their troops perish.
They had killed more than forty thousand of the
Turks; but this immense loss did not prevent
Selim's gaining the day. He charged at the
head of the janissaries ; the efforts of this brave
soldiery decided the victory. The troops were
too much fatigued to pursue those who fled, and
indeed, it would have been dangerous to engage

in deserts full of rocks and defilés against na-
:tional troops.

The Turks, after having loaded themselves with booty, entered the town of Tauris, which made no resistance. At first the spoils dazzled the vanquishers; they saw nothing on the field of battle but arms well wrought, incrustated with


gold, and ornamented with precious stones, tents J.C. 1514. lined with the finest filks, rich clothes, women of uncommon beauty, who had followed their husbands or masters to the war, and frighted horses, covered with the superbest trappings, brought back by hunger to the places where they saw men. These riches and the pillage of Tauris occupied for some time the avidity of the Turks; but all the gold and pearls of the East could not furnish them with sustenance; the scarcity became more and more dreadful. These conquerors, loaded with booty, who saw their army more than half reduced, after having a long time combated hunger, were afraid of sinking under it themselves. :

When the sultan gave out that he meant to penetrate into Persia to seek provisions, the revolt became general; the principal officers of the janissaries and spahis declared, that they could not answer for their troops, and that, if he would be obeyed, he must turn back.

The imperious Selim dreaded the consequen- Selim, who ces of his obftinacy: convinced of the impof- .

he pola penetrate fibility of penetrating into Persia at the head of in toh Piercida, an army of which he was no longer master, he to turn.. retook the road to Armenia, deferring the pu- fear of

mutiny nishment of the mutineers 'till circumstances should furnish him with an opportunity: his thoughts were employed on another project of vengeance.

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J.C. 1514. King Aliadoulet, who, after having promised
Heg. 920.

to furnish the fultan's army on the confines of
Persia with provisions, had, on the contrary, inter-
cepted the convoys which he drew from his own
dominions, was become the object of Selim's
resentment. Moreover, his projects on Persia
feemed to require him to conquer Armenia,
which was nearer the Ottoman empire, less arid
than the country on which it borders, and the
conquest of which should necessarily render easier
the invasion that he meditated in the empire of
the fophi; but his army had never had so much
want of repose; he crossed Armenia without
committing any act of hoftility, and returned

to his own dominions for winter quarters. 525. The emperor employed himfelf, during this inHeg. 921. He raises terval, in repairing the immense losses that his vic

tories had caused' him. And indeed, the exact reduring the LOT

view of his army convinced him, that he had paid too dearly for very triling advantages : he raised new levies, and employed in disciplining his troops the time intended for their repose. The mountainous and difficult province of Armenia became a necessary barrier to obtain. The kingdom of Aliadoulet comprehended mount Taurus, and a long chain of other mountains extending from the confines of Amalia to mount Amant, and to the further extremities of Caramania. These people, who inhabited only simple cottages, were more proper for pillaging than fighting. By





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