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the course of time, neceffity had united them, J.C 1515, and they had elected a king for all these mounHego 92i; tains, the pastures of which nourished a great number of wild animals, particularly horses well formed to bear fatigue.

Selim took the field in the beginning of the spring. Aliadoulet affembled the few soldiers that he could oppose to this numerous army, and who were apparently sufficient to guard defilés with.. Fifteen thousand horse, and about the fame num- Selim ber of infantry, composed all the Armenian himself forces. Their military talents were confined to the comiclimbing mountains with agility, in order to get Aliadouout of the reach of the enemy, or attacking troops Hoch Wimas inferior in number. The sultan soon repented and has of having brought two hundred thousand men to pu a war, where he could not employ fifty thousand : in this situation he resolved to remain encamped on the confines of Armenia, and send his best troops against these mountaineers, whom it was requisite to pursue rather than to fight. He dem tached Sinan bahaw with forty thousand men, twenty thousand of which were spahis, and twenty thousand janissaries. These last attacked the defilés, and foon fucceeded in routing men who neither kept their ranks nor fought together. The remainder of the campaign became a continual chase. The caverns and tops of mountains were the only places of defence that these fugitive people had. They burnt their cottages

put to death.

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1.C. 1515• and desolated the country, in order to render it
Heg. 921.

impracticable for an army; but the perseverance
and bravery of the Turkish soldiers overcame
the 'agility of the Armenians. In less than fix
weeks, which the fatigue and famine rendered
very distressing, they destroyed all Aliadoulet's
army. This prince himself was surprised in a
cavern with all his children; they were conducted
before Selim, who, after having reproached him
with his perfidy, caused all this unfortunate family
to be put to death.

The emperor reduced all the conquered coun-
try to the subjection of Alibeg, a Persian lord
who had put himself under the protection of the
Porte; but he made him king only of a desert.
He distributed a number of timars in this deso-
lated country, of which the pasture and horses
had hitherto made the principal riches. In the
project which Selim had always had of conquer-
ing Persia, it was highly requisite for him to
render Armenia fertile, as much to allift the
Turkish armies, who would have to traverse arid
deserts, as to repeople by degrees this vast coun-
try, where nature seemed to be more miserable
than elsewhere. But the warlike Ottomans count
less the number of men, than the extent of the
country that they reduce, and the timars which
they distribute in their conquests continue in the
same devastation as the army leaves them; these


vain to


his return toConstan.

precarious poffeffions are an obstacle to the fer-1.C.1515.

Heg. 921. tility of the country.

The destruction of Armenia had cost the sultan He tries in but few soldiers and little time. His troops were carry this quite fresh: and being master of the country in his pers. rear, he thought he could enter Persia at a much greater advantage than the preceding year. But, tinople's as soon as the janissaries knew his design, they the princi

pal authors all exclaimed, that they would not return to of this dif

obedience. these arid sands, where they had only to war with famine and the elements. The spahis refused to mount their horses, unless it were to return to Europe; at length the most absolute of monarchs saw himself constrained to obey his army. The news of the death of Solyman, the son of Achmet, who, as we have seen, had found an asylum in Persia, and had raised up that nation against the murderer of his father, did not console Selim for the disobedience of his army. This prince was greatly exasperated, because, during the cries of rebellion, he had heard the name of his son Solyman mentioned. The example which he himself had given the heir to the throne, threw him into the greatest perplexity. After the difpersion of the army, the greatest part of which he left in Asia, the emperor returned to his seraglio at Constantinople, which he fortified every way by several batteries; the janissaries that were to enter the city he brought across the sea, and then D12


THE OTTOMANS. L.C. 1515• left them outside the gates, declaring, that he no w ww longer regarded them but as rebels. This con

duct had more effect on these troops, than if
Selim had undertaken to punish them. They
saw themselves outside the walls, without pay,
and without vessels to repass the straits. The
eyes of the divan were open on their proceedings:
they had not Solyman to place at their head; the
fire of the rebellion was extinguished. They pre-
sented themselves in great number at the gates
of Constantinople with white rods in their hands,
the only arms that they bore, and which they still
carry during peace, crying mercy, and alking
forgiveness. This was precisely what Selim had
expected. The janiffaries soon offered to deliver
to the emperor those who had encouraged them
to revolt. On the hopes that Sinan bashaw
gave them that the sultan might be prevailed on
to pardon their mutiny, they brought the same
day several of their chiefs, loaded with chains,
who were beheaded before the gates of the city.
After some executions of this kind, Seliin per-
mitted the janissaries to return to their odas,
and caused their usual pay to be distributed to
them. Prince Solyman, who had been for some
time believed the soul of this faction, though he
was not with the army, went and justified him-
self to the emperor, who only wished to be
assured of his innocence.


yoke, and attach themselves to the Oto


Selim, without going out of his feraglio, wreft- J.C. 1516.

Heg. 9220 ed a province from the Persians. The people of Mesopotamia, now called Diarbekar, were bekarianas in subjection to the king of Persia. They had the feelitan received the ancient Alcoran under the government of the Abbasian caliphs s, and Ishmael tormenting them with the new opinions of the toman em

pire, under fect of Ali. These people, become miserable, the sceptre thought they could shake off a yoke imposed taryprince. on them by a foreign garrison; they plotted in filence, after which they wrote to the Turkish emperor, that, if his highness would receive the Diarbekarians under his protection, and permit them to choose a prince who should pay him tribute and acknowledge him for high sovereign, they only asked his approbation, to drive out the Persians. This proposition appeared fo favorable to Selim, that for some time he had a sufpicion of its concealing a snare; but he soon learned, that the people of the Diarbekar, in attending his answer, had executed their project. Those, who were at the head of this conspiracy, had counterfeited the seal of the king of Persia, and conveyed to the fatrap, who commanded the troops, a false order to retire with all his garrison to the confines of another province, for operations which the sophi would explain to him, himself. The fatrap obeyed, leaving in the capital and the other places a very small number of soldiers. As soon as the Diarbekarians knew


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