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to 1389.

- to 791.

particular officers, and he subjected the whole J.C.1360, corps to a chief, called an aga, who, by his credit Heg. 761, and authority, became one of the first officers of the empire. As Amurath wished to give this corps, of infantry the renown of great valour, he resolved to consecrate it by religion. The first enrolled were sent to a dervis, whose holy life rendered him recommendable. As soon as these new soldiers were proftrated before him, the folitary man, affecting a prophetic tone, and placing the sleeve of his garment on the head of the first of them: “ Be their name janissaries,” said he; “ be their countenances fierce, their “ hands always victorious, their swords always « sharp, their lances always ready to strike at " the head of an enemy, and their courage the “ cause of their constant prosperity.” Since this period, they have always retained the name of janissaries, which signifies new soldiers, and their cap has retained the form of a fleeve. This foldiery became, as we shall see in the sequel, very useful to the Ottoman empire, and sometimes fatal to its masters. .

All absolute as Amurath was, he affected to refefers the fubinit himself strictly to the usages, and even to the ministers of the Alcoran, though he could peror:

Consequenraise or depose them at his will. The mufti, who ces. is the chief of the religion, was likewise, in the beginning of the empire, judge of the contests which happened between private persons.* The E2

sultan * The mollahs and cadis, who are the Ottoman judges, are ecclesiastics.

The mufti

non testimony

of the em

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J.C. 1360, sultan wanted to appear one day as a witness in
to 1389.
Heg. 761, a process between two officers of the seraglio:
to 791.

the mufti had the boldness to refuse to hear his.
master: “ Your word is facred,” said he to him,
“ being the word of the sultan ; but if you ap-
of pear as a private person, I cannot hear you,
" because you do not mingle your prayers with
" those of your brethren in our mosques, as it
« behoves every Mussulman to do." Amurath,
struck with this reproach, built a mosque at A-
drianople, opposite his-seraglio, where he went
afterwards the days and hours ordered by the law
of Mahomet. '
· The janissaries, the very first year of their in-
ftitution, shewed great proofs of valour. The
sovereigns, that had seized on the ruins of the
Greek empire, feared the sultan infinitely more
than the feeble enemy whom they had plun-

dered. John Paleologus saw the impoffibility of League be- sustaining himself on his throne, without the afdronicus & fiftance of this new ally, whose usurped power he Contuíus.

detested, but which he was obliged to implore.
Andronicus and Contusus, the one son of John
Paleologus, the other of Amurath, with the ja-
nissaries, the spahis, and a few imperial troops,
defeated, at a place called Sirmen, a confederate
army of Moldavians, Walachians, Transylvanians,
and Bulgarians, neighbouring nations, enriched
by the spoils of the Greeks, whom we shall see
foon become tributary to the Turks. Age, con


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formity of inclinations, and success, united the J.C. 1387

to 1389. two young princes; but Andronicus beheld with Heg. 789,

to 791. the same eyes as all the Christians the progress of the Turks both in Europe and Asia. He fumed to think he Mould never ałcend the throne of his ancestors, but dependant and almost tributary to a barbarian. Contusus was ambitious; An. dronicus undertook to arm him against his father and master; hoping one day to throw off the Turkish yoke, by destroying the father by the fon. To complete this enterprise, it was likewise necessary for Andronicus to arm against Paleologus. Both these princes governed their fathers? European dominions, whilst Paleologus and Amurath were gone into Alia for reasons which history does not say. The two young rebels formed a league offensive and defensive, and had their names placed in the public acts, The sultan, on receiving these news, reproached Paleologus as bitterly, as if he had been the accomplice of the young prince who aimed at dethroning him. The emperor of the East de. scended to the lowest justification's; and, whatever reason he had to with the division of the barbarians, he promised to chastise his son, if he could take him prisoner.

In effect, the two monarchs repassed the Bosphorus, at the head of an army composed of Turks, for the Greeks were in so finall a number, that they scarcely merited to be counted. Amurach


J.C. 1387, found the rebels encamped at some leagues from
Heg: 789, Conftantinople, and intrenched between palisades
E and a river. He approached the camp at night,

by favor of the moon light, and made himself
known to the advanced guards. This fage prince
made use of Aattery and promises in order to
prevail on the soldiers to return to their obe-
dience. The caresses of a monarch, 'till then
always vanquilher, and of whom the rebels were
afraid they should soon experience the courage
and fortune, · shook their constancy : they re-
turned to the camp only to impart Amurath's
promises to their comrades. In less than an hour.
Contusus faw more than three-fourths of his army
desert to his father's camp: the two revolted
princes had no other choice than to retreat.
They both fled to Didimotica, resolved to merit
a capitulation by their courage. They were re-
ceived with respect;, but, after much blood fpilt,
the city was taken, and the two princes fell into
the hands of an inexorable vanquilher.

Amurath sent Andronicus under a strong guard Leaguc. to Conftantinople, and summoned the emperor his

father to keep his word by punishing this rebellious son, after which he had the eyes of his own put out in his presence, and all the soldiers of the garrison precipitated from the tops of the towers of Didimotica into the Heber which runs at its foot. Amurath satisfied his fanguinary humour under a shadow of justice; but he made himself


Bad fuc. cefs of this

detested, when he condemned several young citi- J.C. 13870.

to 1389. zens, who had presumed to carry arms against Heg: 789,

to 791. him, to be put to death by the hands of their fathers. The fathers, who refused to execute this barbarous order, were massacred with their fons.

The emperor Paleologus did not dare resist the will of an ally who was almost his master, Though Andronicus had acted only for the interest of the empire, he was condemned to have his eyes put, out, as was likewise his son, a child. of five years old. But, either through chance, or pity in the executioners, neither of the two . . princes lost his fight. Andronicus had but one eye absolutely put out, and his son had only the . fight injured, which he recovered some time after. )

Immediately after this execution, Paleologus Manuel declared Manuel, his second son, his affociate in afce

" throne. He the empire. This young prince fixed his refi- lof dence at Thessalonica. He was no sooner arrived there, than, vexed to see the Greek empire become the prey of the Turks, he undertook to recover fome of the neighbouring towns by force or by stratagem. Manuel procured intelligence in the town of Phera, but it was not so secret as not to be soon known to Amurath, who sent Karatine, the most experienced of his generals, to besiege Thessalonica. The townsmen, dreading the fate of those of Didimotica, threatened to deliver Manuel to his redoubtable enemy. · The 'young emperor implored in vain the succour of

afcends the

loses There salonica.


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