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i.e. 15**. a drum. He caused the mine to be immediately

Heg. 928,'

& 9-9- counterworked, drove out the labourers with grenades, or else threw in barrels of powder all inflamed, which stifled and burnt these wretches in the subterraneous passages which they had themselves digged. The artillery of the knights of Rhodes, superior to that of the Turks, dismounted almost always the batteries of the besiegers, so that the latter durst no longer fire but by night. They soon began to want powder in the town. The grand master employed all the mills and horses in the place, to grind a sufficient quantity of salt petre, but the cannon and small arms used much more than the mills could furnish. The defence of the place soon suffered from this scarcity; the Rhodians perceived also, that the blood which they spilt in the sallies was too precious, considering the smallness of their number, since the Turks fought more than twenty against one. They contented themselves with defending the five bastions which Solyman caused to be attacked at the same time at the five extremities of the town, and constructing new works behind those on which the cannon made an impression. Two mines, which- succeeded, gave the Turks hopes of soon mounting to the assault, but the walls beaten down discovered n6w ones to their eyes. For two months had they battered in breach, and the Turkish generals had not yet thought of storming the place.

Sol y man, Solyman, full of impatience and shame, af-J;c/l5"«

Heg. 928,

sembled his council to reproach the bashaws with & 9*9? six thousand Christians' opposing all the forces „,

1 * *-* The grand

of the Ottoman empire. The grand vizier re- scigniorde

. poses his

plied, that sufficient advantage had not been vizier on taken of their number; that opposing artillery to the bad artillery, and mines to mines, as had been done his troops so far, was renouncing voluntarily their supe- \lg thTM" riority; that the janissaries; should be led to theplacs* assault, and all the bastions attacked at once. This proposal was seized with avidity. The next morning, at break of day, the batteries fired brisker than ever, in order to enlarge the breaches. The five principal posts, called France, Spain, Italy, Germany, and England, on account of their being each intrusted to knights of these nations, were more defended by the valour of the troops, than by the fortifications, already much impaired. The sultan ascended a small hill, from whence he could see with a glance of the eye all the attacks that his bashaws were about to make. The janissaries were already advancing, ladder in hand, when they heard acclamations of joy in the place, caused by the arrival of two galleys from Sicily, which brought two hundred soldiers, with provisions and ammunition. Though this succour was not very important, the good fortune which it had had to enter a port invested by more than two hundred fail, spite of the efforts of the captain bashaw and the fire


li?g.1£l-Jrom ali tne fleet' was a 8ood omen for tne v& 9_2^ knights. The defence of the five bastions demonstrated what valour can do against ferocity , and number. "L'isle Adam went to the English bastion, which was the weakest, and consequently , most in need of attention, When the janissaries had reached the ditches, the knights lavished the fire which they had 'till then been sparing of, and made a terrible slaughter. The Turks reached several times the top of the walls, and were as often thrown down. All those, who put"foot on the platform of the bastions, met certain death: at length, after a combat of more than six hours, during which time all the attacks were constantly repelled, Solyman, fuming with rage, ordered the retreat to be sounded, in order that it might appear, at least, that his troops had submitted only to his orders. The Turks left more than twenty thousand men around the ramparts, which they had not been able to force. As soon as he was returned to the camp, Solyman ordered, that the grand vizier Mustapha, his favorite and brother-in-law, should be fastened to a stake in presence of all the army, as a butt to shoot arrows at. This young monarch made his vizier responsible for the bad success of the siege, and particularly for the last assault, which the grand vizier had recommended. This cruel order was going to be executed; Mustapha was already fastened to the stake, when Peri bashaw, his friend, who had


educated the emperor, ordered the execution to J-0-1?"

Heg. 928,

be suspended, and, seconded by all the bashaws & s>29of the bench, and almost all the1 chiefs of the troops, he ran to the emperor's tent to solicit a pardon for the grand vizier, who, they all maintained, was not culpable. Solyman, irritated, condemned Peri bashaw to perish the fame instant, with him whom he defended with so much constancy; but all the other bashaws having prostrated themselves at the fame time before him, the emperor read in all their eyes how much horror this order inspired. Having collected himself, he pardoned Kirlou and Peri, on condition that the former never appearedi again in his presence. A sangiacate was given him in Egypt, in order to fend him so far off that he might never return. There remained to punish the lieutenant or admiral of the fleet, who had let the two Neapolitan galleys enter; the sultan ordered that he should be publicly deposed, and whipped like a slave on board the admiral galley. Achmet bashaw, the able engineer that Solyman had brought with him, was made grand vizier, and intrusted with the command of the army.

It is said, that, af/er this bad success, the TrU1 of Turkish emperor .would have raised the siege, if he 1^"J^ had pot been persuaded by letters from the town, Damarl1 thrown into the, with arrows, to continue it,,.. They assured Solyman, that the knights, reduced to the last extremity, could not defend Rr the

ii?-1$lz tne P^ace much longer; that they wanted ammu& 9*9- nition, and had lost a great many soldiers. This intelligence raised the sultan's spirits. The artillery again battered in breach, and the Turks prepared to recommence the assaults. A Jewish physician was convicted of having committed this treason: he was caught going to shoot off one of these arrows which carried advice; he acknowledged, in the torments of the rack, that he had constantly been the spy of the Turks, and had even been paid by the emperors Selim and Bajazet II. A traitor of much greater consequence was soon thought to be discovered. Damaral, the grand chancellor, though intrusted during the siege with the inspection of the posts, had always been suspected by the friends of the grand master, and by the grand master himself. An old grudge which he was reproached with bearing L'isle Adam, before that knight was invested with the sovereign dignity; the pretensions of Damaral to the grand-mastership, and his too visible chagrin at not having succeeded therein i his opposition in the council to the provisioning of Rhodes when war was not yet declared; the N scarcity of gun-powder, which happened only because the chancellor, charged with that inspection, had assured the council that the magazines were much fuller than they really were; all this had raised suspicions. The reader must remem. ber that the different posts were intrusted to the


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