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fame officer, for the whole fiege. One of 1.C 1522.

Heg. 928, these commanders secretly warned the grand & 929. master, that a servant of Damaral's, called Blase

w Dies, came very often to his post; that, for a long time, he paid no attention to him, but having at length remarked, that this man appeared there every day at the same hours, he had exaa mined him nearer, and thought he was sure that Dies threw intelligence into the enemy's camp by means of arrows; and that the grand chancellor came there often with his servant. L'isle Adam paid attention to this information. Dies, carefully watched, was caught going to throw off one of these notes, which was taken in his hands. The wretch, interrogated, contradicted himself several times; on being put to the rack, he said, before he suffered it, that the intelligence which he sent to the enemy was dictated to him by Damaral, and that he threw it into the enemy's camp by order of his master. The chancellor was arrested immediately and conducted to the tower of St. Nicholas. Two grand crosses were sent to interrogate him. Da maral defended himself with haughtiness. He replied to these commisioners, that he had not served the Order forty years to betray it in an advanced age; that the favors of the Turks could not compensate for the riches, dignities, and reputation he enjoyed; and that he opposed to his calumniators, the series of a long life without



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the OTTOMANS. 10:1522. reproach. When they confronted 'him with his & 929. accufer, he said, that that man accused him, only

through revenge for having had him severely chastised several times, and perhaps with the hope of faving his life ; that, if he, Damaral, had wished to betray, he had no occasion for the assistance of that wretch, as his quality of inspector of the defence gave him the right of visiting the posts at all hours, and to remain there as long as he should think proper, without ever being fuspected.

A priest, chaplain to the Order, came and deposed, that, having advanced on a bastion one day, which he mentioned; he saw Damaral with this servant, both looking earnestly on the enemy's cainp; that being both returned, he perceived in Dies's hands, a cross bow, with its bolo or quarrel, to which a paper was fastened ; that the chancellor haughtily demanded of him with an angry tone, what he was feeking; upon which he retired immediately, seeing his prefence was disagreeable. On this deposition it was resolved that Damaral should be put to the rack. Before it was commenced, the grand crosses earnestly pressed him to put himself in a situation to experience the forgiveness of God, of the grand master, and of all the Order, by a sincere acknowledgment of his crime. .The chancellor answered with firmness, that nothing should ever make him calumniate himself, that he would ra

ther ther fuffer all the torments imaginable, than ren- J.C. 1522; der himself contemptible in the eyes of the world 929., and his own. In the horrors of the torture, he acknowledged solely, that at the çime of the election of L'ine Adam, knowing that the Turks had for a long time 'menaced the island, he had faid to two knights, that that would be the last grand inafter of Rhodes; that his chagrin at not having carried it against his competitor, and his manner of thinking of L'ile Adam, whom he had always considered as a man of little ability, had drawn these indiscreet expressions from him. As to the rest, gentlemen, continued he, looking at his judges, this fault does not merit that you should deliver one of the first personages of your Order to the executioner. Damaral preserved this firmness to the last moment." His judges however thought they saw sufficient to condern

him. The grand chancellor was therefore pub·licly stripped of the marks of his dignity, and

the habit of his Order, after which he was delivered to the secular judges, who caused him to be carried in a chair, the next day, to the great square, where his fervant was hanged before his eyes, and himself beheaded, always protesting his innocence and the error of his judges.

Meanwhile the Turks battered in breach faster than ever. The remaining knights, rather hide den and buried than fortified in the ruins of their ramparts, says Vertot, constantly flattered them


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THE OTTOMANS. 1.C. 1522. felves with succours from the Christian princes, Heg. 928, & 9296 without which they could not long hold out. But

Charles V. and Francis I, had affairs more interesting for them than the fiege of Rhodes. All the other Christian princes, without excepting the new pope Adrian VI. were engaged in the quarrel of these two illustrious rivals, and abandoned this monastery of warriers to the care of Providence and the valour of its knights. Three convoys, one from Provence, another from Spain, and a third from England, had been wrecked in distant places or taken by the Turks. The janissaries, become masters of the out-works of the place, had obliged the grand master to have the churches and buildings in the suburbs pulled down, in order to deprive the enemy of them. The fire from the besiegers and the besieged was so close, that there was no intermission either by day or night. The Turks were continually relieving one another, in order to oblige the few foldiers who were yet in the place, to remain always on duty. Notwithstanding these extremities, L'isle Adam would not hear of a capitulation. He recollected always, that forty years before, the perseverance of Aubusson had tired the valour of the janissaries : not being less valiant nor less prudent, he flattered himself, though less seconded, with being equally fortunate. Achmet bashaw saw, that, notwithstanding the ground which his troops gained in the place, and

spite of the breaches in the new works, these lions 7.C. 1532a

Heg. 928, could not be forced in their fort. He caused & 929. honorable capitulations to be proposed to them several times; the grand master, having always rejected them, threatened, at last, to fire on those who were charged with these proposals; but the Rhodians faw with the greatest grief that their town would soon be sacked. Intelligence was continually throwing into the place, importing, that the Rhodians might, if they would, save their poffeffions, their fortunes, and the honor of their wives; that the grand feignior offered them treaties, but that the knights, their real enemies, were resolved to see them perilh. These murmurs encreased more and more against the obstinacy of L'isle Adam. At length, the Greek and the top the Latin archbishop, for there was one for each archbishops

of Rhodes, communion at Rhodes, went and told the grand and all the

people, ea. mafter, that God was determined to take the gerly reisland from the Order, since he deprived them of have the the means to defend it; that religion did not given up. permit him to sacrifice so many people to vain glory; that humanity was not less a duty of the knights of St. John, than valour; that, besides, it was to be feared that the Rhodians, grown desperate, would become his enemies, and would rather march on the bloody bodies of the few knights who remained at Rhodes, to open their gates and accept the capitulation offered, than expose themselves to these horrors, which the


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