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orders to Bajazet to restore Taharten his liberty, J.C.1395, his children, and his estates, and to remit him Heg: 797, (Tamerlane) one of his sons as an hostage. Bajazet, 'meditating only to repel the insults of the Tartar, anfwered him by other insults to his ambassadors. Tamerlane, after a delay of three months, put himself at the head of a forinidable army. Schilperger, a contemporary, who served under. Tamerlane in this fame army, makes it amount to sixteen hundred thousand men, Calcondilus gives him but eight hundred thousand. Undoubtedly this number will appear incredible to those that know how difficult it is to subsist a hundred thousand foldiers in the most fertile country. But one must suppose, that the Tartars, exposed day and night to the injuries of the air, were accustomed to the foberest and hardest of lives, and that all these hordes, that, in the preceding century, had so often changed climate, were equally numerous. Be that as it may, Tamerlane marched as far as Siwas, where he reviewed the different corps which joined him at that place; then continuing to advance into the Turkish territories, as he was about to lay siege to Angora or Ancyra, he learned that Bajazet was marching towards him, with an army, which, at the most, was not more than the half of his. Tamerlane made a march forward; he knew how to take other advantages besides number. He had more military knowledge than appeared in


to 804.

J.C.1395, an age when the multitude of soldiers, courage, lleg: 797, and bodily strength, composed the whole science band of war. Battle of · The Tartarian prince intrenched himself in his J.C.1402. camp, leaving before him a dry plain, in which Bezo 304 he hoped to hein in Bajazet, if he came to take

possession of it, either by fuperiority of number, or by guarding several narrow pases, which he had had the time to observe. Bajazet, accuftomed to vanquish, longed to engage an enemy

more formidable than all those whom he had yet :, met with. · As he made long marches, he foon

took poffeffion of the camp, which the Tartar feemed to have intended for him. Bajazet remained in this situation but a short time, before he saw himself compelled to give battle ; this was what Tamerlane wanted.* He divided his army into three corps, at the head of which he placed eight of his sons and grandsons, who were all called Mirza, a title given by the Tartars only to kings' fons. It is said that Tamerlane passed the night preceding the battle in prayers; he

affected an exterior religion before his foldiers. Bajazet is Bajazel's troops were reduced to despair before and taken the battle began. Since the evening, five thou

sand men were dead of thirst in his camp. The - Turkish emperor gave the command of his right

i wing



* This battle, between Tamerlane and Bajazet, was fought at the foor of mount Stella, in the very place where Pompey vanquished Mithridates. Translator.

wing to Bazzirlaus, his wife's brother, son of J.C. 1402.

* Heg. 804. Ierman Ogli whom he had dethroned. He put er four sons, whom he had had by several concu. bines, at the head of different corps. His whole army was distributed on a line; in order to lofa in fer a more extended front to his numerous in enemies; but the fury of the Turks hurt their discipline. The janissaries and spahis hurried on without keeping their ranks or listening to the orders of their commanders. Moreover, the Tartar's elephants, carrying small towers full of soldiers, foon frighted the horses of the spahis. Bazzirlaus was killed in the beginning of the battle. Bajazet beheld from an elevated spot the defeat, or rather the disorder of his army: for his brave Turks, dispersed, without any hope of rallying, chose rather to precipitate themselves into the middle of the Tartarian battalions, and fell their lives dearly, than flee before the vanquisher. In vain did they attempt to persuade Bajazet to save himself by flight; he consumed this fatal day in useless efforts: the troops rallied at his voice, only to offer more victims to the enemy's sword, Having seen Mustapha his eldest son perish, he ordered his vizier Ali bashaw to make the best of his way to Bursa with Solyman his second son, in order to preserve some remains of the Ottoman blood. Never was valour more unfortunate. The conqueror was at length prevented from continuing . Η



THE OTTOMANS. J.C. 1402. the Naughter by the heaps of dead. On the ap. Heg. 804. ar proach of night, Bajazet being descended from

the little hill from which he had beheld this fatal sight, was presently attacked by a cloud of Tartars; his despair was unable to procure him the death which he fought. Those that had surrounded him were determined to take him aa live; they wrested his sword from him, with which he had sain more than thirty Tartars ;; and when his strength was exhausted, they tied his hands with a bow-string, and placed him on a small horse, which carried him to the tent of the vanquisher. Tamerlane knew by the acclamations what captivé they were bringing him. He had retired from the field at the decline of the day: the victory being over a long time, he was playing at chess with one of his sons. Neither the arrival of Bajazet, nor the acclamations, nor the eagerness of the chiefs, disturbed Tamerlane; the prisoner was obliged to wait at the entrance of the pavilion, 'till the Tartarian prince had finished his play. He then advanced to Bajazet, untied his hands, and ordered him to be clothed with a fine vest. The conqueror reproached his prisoner with his usurpations, and the blood that he had spilt. Bajazet replied haughtily; but, whatever some historians may have said, Tamerlane never forgot the respect due to the misfortunes of an equal become his



- surrenders

to Tamerlane. Ba


Nave.* He consoled him and swore that he L.C. 1402. would respect his life.

Bajazet, encouraged by the clemency of the Angora conqueror, requested to have two of his fons to Tamerlooked for, whose fate he was ignorant of. He jazet is had seen the eldest fall before his eyes. The with husecond he had ordered to save himself; the two his vano

manity by last were soon brought, like their father, to Tamer- his lane, who treated them as he had treated Bajazet." This prince was conducted to a tent, where, though ftrily guarded, he was paid all the attention.due to a monarch. After this victory, the governor of Angora delivered up the place and its citadel to



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wife & two sons.

* The manner in which the Tartar received Bajazet, is differently reported. According to some he reproached him with his pride, cruelty, and presumption. Dost thou not know, faid he to him, that it is only the children of misfortune, that dare oppose our invincible power ? Others pretend, on the con. trary, that Tamerlane received him favourably; that he conducted him to his own tent, where he made him eat with him, and that, to console him, he entertained him only with the vicissitudes and inconstancy of fortune. They add, that, either through compassion, or perhaps a sort of contempt, he sent him a hunting equipage, and that it gave the Tartar great pleasure to be able to make him comprehend, that he thought him fitter for the tail of a pack of hounds than the head of a great army. This at least was the ex. plication which Bajazet himself gave to the mysterious present of his enemy. This unfortunate prince, not being master of his resentment, and full of a wild chagrin, replied haughtily: Tell Tamerlane, he has not mistaken, in inviting me to an exercise, which ḥas always been the pleasure of sovereigns, ard that is much more suitable to Bajazet, descended from the great Amurath the for of Orcan, than to an adventurer like bim, the commander of a banditti.

Tamerlane foon returned to his character. This barbarian, irritated at such an injurious answer, immediately ordered Bajazet to be put, without a saddle, on one of the old horses that served to carry the baggage, and to be exposed in that situation to the contempt and raillery of the soldiers of the camp; which was immediately executed. At his return, this unfortunate

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