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with honors, and consented to restore him Thes- J,c- J+!3»

» to 1416.

salonica, with all the fortresses bordering on the He&- *l6>

'° to 819.

Pont Euxine. He favorably received likewise *—v—» the envoys of the princes of Walachia, Bulgaria, and Moldavia, received the tributes which they offered him, promising his protection and a lasting peace to all of them, as long as they remained in subjection. This prince, in the history of the Turks, is counted the fifth emperor. All the time which passed between the fall of Bajazet and the accession of Mahomet to the throne, is considered only as an interreign. He was ac- <

knowledged in Asia as in Europe, except at first by Caraman Ogli, the son of him, whose estates had been invaded by Bajazet, and who had lost his head by order of that prince. Caraman Ogli, re-established, as we have seen, on his father's throne, by Tamerlane, had been kept in order since, by the presence of Mahomet; but as soon as the latter was gone to Europe, he flattered himself with the conquest of Bursa, as much more easily, as, since Bajazet, the Ottoman dominions in these" two different parts of the world, had not belonged to the fame master. Mahomet subdued this rebel, as likewise the prince of Castamona his accomplice; he seized the possessions of the latter, and reduced those of Caraman to a simple tribute.

It was necessary to have the authority and talents of Mahomet to restore the Ottoman empire K 2 the j.c. 1413, tne form which the invasion os the Tartars, and

to 1416. * _'

Heg. 816, the divisions and vices of the sons of Bajazet, had

to 819. J

«—«r—» destroyed. All the tributary princes, even the Mahomet bashaws, considered themselves as so many inneis to o- dependent sovereigns. There was still a bashaw & receives of Smyrna, called Sineis, to be reduced, who, from"scve- under the feeble Solyman, had taken possession of princes? Ephesus and Nimphea, and who hoped to maintain this usurpation, though all his neighbours were returned to their obedience. In the beginning of the spring, Mahomet marched towards Smyrna, where Sineis, who was fortifying Ephesus, had ltft his wife and children. Mahomet had no sooner encamped before the town, than the princes of Phocea, Upper Phrygia, Caria, Lesoos, and Scio, came in a crowd to offer him their tribute and homage. Mahomet kindly received all these Greeks, and treated them as if they had been Mahometans. The siege of Smyrna lasted but twelve days: Mahomet demolished the fortifications immediately on its surrendering. It was the policy of this prince to preserve but very few fortified towns, particularly in the inland part of this large state; they only served, he said, to invite and favor revolts. Sineis ran to beg forgiveness. Mahomet spared his life and left him his property, contenting himself with taking from him the government which he had abused.

The The sultan was not so fortunate by sea as heJ;c-,4»6

'Heg. 819.

had been on the continent. The republic of «—v—.» Venice was at that time very powerful: - their ^s^etne* possessions extended from cape Istria to Constan-~ck,t!f tinople, and they transacted most all the com- sfa & beat

r * . them.

merce of Europe. The Turks, much worse j.c.1416. mariners than the Venetians, (for they knew butHes* I9little of working vessels, still less of their construction,) were infinitely more greedy. Being accustomed to pillage by land, they saw with envy merchantmen, richly laden, returning from Trebizond; they lay wait for, and attacked them when they thought them badly defended. The Venetians, offended at this piracy, sent an ambassador to Mahomet, who made complaints, and offered the sultan either war or peace with the republic. Mahomet, convinced by the law of his prophet, that all was lawful that was taken from Christians who paid no kind of tribute, an^ swered the Venetians roughly, and prepared to give a good reception to this naval army, with which he was menaced.

These republicans advanced towards the Hellespont with fifteen galleys, commanded by admiral Loredan; they proceeded as far as the entrance of the straits of Gallipoli. Thirty Turkish galleys came out, commanded by Gialibeg, the captain bashaw. Admiral Loredan, at the head of his fifteen galleys, was sensible of his superiority over the Turks by the construction of "his


j.c. i4i«, vessels, the address of his sailors, and the talents

to 1419.

Weg. 819, of the admiral and officers who commanded under

to 822. . . '

*—v—» him; he knew how to gain the wind, and dispose the attack in such manner, that the sun might dazzle the eyes of the enemy. Though powder was already invented, the use of fire arms was as yet very rare; they were but little used in the East, and even in the European armies. Clouds of arrows, well aimed, destroyed almost as many Turks, whilst the latter were unable to fee where to direct theirs in return. The boarding was almost as favorable to the Christians, as the combat at a distance had been. The Venetians killed a great many, among others, the enemy's admiral; they captured more than half their galleys; the rest were funk, or re-entered the straits only in a shattered condition. Let a naval engagement be ever so unfortunate, it rarely produces such fatal consequences as a battle by land. The Turkish coast was too well guarded to admit of the Venetians' attempting to make a descent. But they received from this victory the fruit of their expectation; the sea became more free, and their commerce more certain. *, of Pert" An unexpected event prevented Mahomet from

tiiga. endeavouring to repair this maritime defeat. He learned, that towards she entrance of the gulf of Ionia, opposite the isle of Scio, a novator had begun to preach, sword in hand, and that his


proselytes were as many soldiers. This man, J-c-»4lS» who was called Percligia, prescribed a voluntary H«s- 8«9. poverty, the community of every kind of property, «—y—i except that of women, above all the not tolerating of Mahometanism, and the necessity of offering to God bloody sacrifices of those whom he termed Blasphemers and Infidels. This pretended prophet was clothed only with a tunic; he marched at the head of several followers, and murdered all those whom he was unable to persuade. Several Greek monks favored this hypocritical brigand, published his miracles, became his disciples, and persecuted in his name. Their retreat was in inaccessible mountains, from whence they spread themselves into Lydia and Ionia, where they made either proselytes or martyrs. The bashaws of these two provinces had been repulsed at the head of the troops that they had been able to assemble. Mahomet sent against them his son Amurath, only twelve years old, at the head of sixty thousand men, having Bajazet, the grand vizier, for his lieutenant. Though this war was short, it was excessively bloody. The Mahometans found every where these fanatics determined to die. The entrance of the mountains was so well defended, that the guards stood to be killed to a man, never fleeing, nor giving, nor receiving quarter. They hoped, as well as the Muslulmen, to charm Heaven sword in hand. Not one of Percligia's disciples would


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