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j.c.1416, renounCe his errors; Even those that at first had

to 1419.

Heg. 822. Deen gained by fear, were become enthusiasts like their master. Of all those that accompanied this impostor in such a large number, not one escaped, either man, woman, or child. Percligia himself was taken i he would never conceal his name, nor renounce what he had taught. Spite of the dreadful torments to which he was put at Ephesus, where he was conveyed, he declared himself always the envoy of God, the organ of truth, the destroyer of superstition and false worship; he Was at last nailed on a cross, where he expired, declaring always, that he should not die, and that he would propagate his law in every corner of the universe. And indeed, it was reported that he was not dead; they would even have it, that he had appeared again in several towns in Greece; but those of his disciples who had escaped the sword of the Mussulmen, dispersed, as soon a? they had lost their master. This sect was the cause of shedding much blood, against the will of Mahomet, who valued men's lives more than any of his predecessors had done.

Towards the end of his reign, Mahomet gave the government of Amasia to the young Amurath his son and heir apparent. He wished to accustom him betimes to the fatigues of war and the cares of government, in order to be witness to his first faults, and to be in a situation to repair them. The sultan himself had committed

1 one,

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one, which was the catrfe Ot!many evils during J*c,I4l6'

* .' * "to 1419.

his reign and his succefforis.^We have said that Hes-8"he pardoned a bashaw of Smyrna, called Sineis, s;neis raiwho was guilty of rebellion, and only took from fes u£ an

D » 'impostor to

him his government. Mahomet, who easily for- d/sPute thc got offences, a few years after, gave this fame flth Ma

° '° hornet.

officer the government of Nicopoli, and confe- j.c.i419. quently an opportunity of again betrayinghim. Si- eg' **neis did not fail of making that use of it. Having found among the dregs of the people a man perfectly resembling Mustapha, the elder brother of Mahomet, who was killed at the battle of Angora by the side of Bajazet his father, he resolved to set up this phantom against the lawful sultan. The"re were but few Mahometans that had seen the real Mustapha perish; Sineis instructed the impostor, and was the first to acknowledge him in Nicopoli, publishing, that the throne belonged to him, as the eldest of the house of Ottoman. The love of novelty, riches, and honors, soon procured the pretended Mustapha a crowd of subjects. Every one was anxious to acknowledge him, in order to merit the favor which he promised all those, who should assist him to recover his sceptre. Sineis and he went into Thessaly, where they recruited considerably, publishing every where fables, which easily gained credit.

Mahomet was quiet at Burfa, when he was presently informed of the progress of the pre

L tended


j.c. 1419, tended Mustapha, and that it was time to attack

to 1421. *

Heg. 8*z, this impostor, whom he had at first seemed to

to 824. *.

«—v—^ contemn. He passed the straits of Gallipoli at the head of sixty thousand men. The sultan was beloved; he flattered himself that his presence would disperse these conspirators. But Sineis, comprehending the necessity of choosing between the most cruel death and the favor of a monarch that would be the work of his hands, encouraged the pretended Mustapha, whose interest was the fame as his, if not greater. They invented a fable, the artifice and probability of which deceived all those that could not, or would not, seek the truth. They wrote to the Greek emperor, and sent to the governors that commanded for him in Europe to implore assistance. They marched at the head of a confused rabble of soldiers, raised in haste. Mahomet came up with this feeble army near Thessalonica, which his janissaries and fpahis dispersed presently. The rebels fled, because Mustapha and Sineis did not dare oppose the vanquisher long, for fear of being made prisoners. TheGrcek As soon as victory declared against them, they gwesfon took refuge in Thessalonica. The next day *n asylum'Mahomet summoned Demetrius Lascaris, the governor of the place for Manuel, to deliver him the two fugitives. On the refusal of this officer, the sultan sent one of the bashaws of his retinue to menace Demetrius with a siege. The latter,

always always believing, or feigning to believe, Mus-J-c-I419> tapha the elder brother of the emperor, answered, Hes* 8". that he should not betray an unfortunate prince, v—-v—* who had requested of him an asylum, nor any of those who had accompanied his flight, without an express order from Manuel his master. 'What most astonishes is, that, notwithstanding the friendship in which the two emperors lived, the pretended Mustapha found the fame protection from Manuel as from Demetrius. In vain did Mahomet cry out that he was an impostor: the Greek emperor constantly treated this adventurer as the son of the unfortunate Bajazet. All that the Turk could obtain, was, that this pretended brother of his should be confined, as likewise Sineis, in the isle of Lemnos, and that both of them should be strictly guarded there for the remainder of their lives. Manuel confirmed this agreement by oath.

Whatever his opinion of the birth of the pretended Mustapha might be, his proceeding was unjust; for, if the latter really were the eldest of «

the Ottoman house, Manuel should not have deprived him of his throne and liberty; if, on the contrary, he was but an impostor, he should not ^ have screened him from the chastisement which he so justly merited, still less have exposed the dominions of his ally to troubles which nothing but Mustapha's death could put an end to. This last consideration was perhaps what determined

L 2 Manuel;

j.c. 1419, Manuel; for, whatever friends the Greeks were of

to 1421*

Heg. 822, Mahomet, it was not without envy that they «—v—i saw the prosperity of the house of Ottoman.

Mahomet was determined to punish the Walachians for the fort of protection that they had given the pretended Mustapha: he ravaged their country, took some towns, and exacted from them Death of an additional tribute. He had hardly finished this expedition, when he was attacked with a bloody flux, which, in a few days, carried him to the grave. When Mahomet saw himself near his end, he sent for his two viziers Bajazet and Ibrahim, and recommended them to be faithful to Amurath his eldest son, who at that time was commanding an army on the frontiers of Amasia. His two other children, who were neither of them above seven years old, he placed under the guardianship of the Greek emperor, for fear, as it is said, lest their brother should have them 't si strangled. This prince died at Adrianople, where feeg. 824. ne nad been conveyed by his own orders, aged forty-seven. He reigned eight years and ten months, more peaceably than had yet been seen among the Turks. Mahomet restored to the Ottoman empire all the splendor that it had lost under Bajazet. Justice and lenity reigned with him; but it is very rare, that men know how to keep constantly that just medium which prudence prescribes, and without which, even virtues become weaknesses. Mahomet's clemency often


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