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As soon as fortune had declared for the; legi- i.c- 1411.

. v—S. He». 824.

y U/^mate)pnnce, he no longer met with resistance. *—v~-»
The fugitive Mustapha had entered Adrianople Theim-
to collect all that he could carry away of his my being
treasures; he was no longer there when Amurath hebttkm
took possession of the place; but these fame TuaXta
treasures, which were his last resource, served to ^"Xre
discover his footsteps. He shewed as little judg- h^him"1
ment in secreting himself, as he had courage in jj"^°
the field"; some spies, who knew him by the mag-
nificence with which he rewarded hospitality, fol-
lowed him. They surprised him in Walachia,
where he was endeavouring to raise some troops,
and to stir up his remaining part isans. Amurath
had offered a sum, to any one that should bring
him Mustapha alive. The wretched being was
conducted to Adrianople, loaded with chains,
where the people, who had believed him their
master, no longer regarded him but as an im-
postor. The emperor exposed him to the insults
of the soldiery, and the indignation of the po-
pulace, after which he was hanged on a gibbet
in the grand square at Adrianople.

Amurath had remained at peace with Manuel J.c. 1422,
all the time that he was engaged in the reduction Amurath."
of the pretended Mustapha; but he never for- £?«'tta
got, that it was the Greek emperor who • had ^°
raised him up this rival. The sultan retained at j>^M**
his court the ambassadors that Manuel had sent
to felicitate him on the death of the usurper.



j,c. Iazz, j-je was unwilling to have these Greeks render

to 1424. .

Heg. 825, too early an account to their master of the pre

to 827. J # r

»—v—» parations which he was making against him; but, as soon as they were finished, the sultan ordered them to go and tell Manuel, that he should see him himself soon after them. Amurath kept his word: in the beginning of the spring, he marched with a hundred and fifty thousand men to ravage Thessaly, Macedonia, and Thrace. Ducas asserts even that the intention of the sultan was to besiege Constantinople. nises'up Manuel, who had nothing near so many troops ag"bst"al to oppose him with, had recourse to his ordinary Amurath. arms' fraud and artifice. He incited by letter one

Death of ', ,

the Greek Helias, governor of the sultan's brothers, to place on the throne the eldest of these princes, who was as yet but a child, and to reign in his name. Perilous and destitute of every pretext as was this proceeding, Helias found accomplices with the Greek money. He conducted to Nice the young Mustapha (for that was likewise the name of this prince). The second Mustapha was incontestably of the Ottoman race; but his right to the throne notwithstanding was equally illegal. Be that as it may, the news of an insurrection at Nice, put a stop .to Amurath's desolating the provinces of his enemy. This was all that Manuel had aimed at. In this interval,

i.c- 1424. the Greek prince died at Constantinople in the


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» seventy-seventh year of his age,, leaving to John J-c- 1424»i

Paleologus, to whom he had already given a Hes-8i

share in the crown, the broken remains of the «—v—»

Greek empire, and his hatred of the Mussulmen.

Amurath only shewed himself in Asia. No Amurath regular troops had taken part with the rebels, brothers but solely a sew freebooters, drawn by the love of pillage, had assembled about Nice. The sultan's approach soon dispersed them. The emperor's name alone was sufficient to procure the opening of the gates of a town, which had so recently acknowledged an usurper. The principal conspirators were so troubled, at the small resistance of their accomplices, that they had not time to look to their own safety. Helias, all the guards, and all the followers of Mustapha, were unmercifully put to death. The pretended emperor and his brother, though yet too young to be really culpable, (for the eldest was but nine years old,) were strangled in Amurath's presence, who sent their bodies to Bursa, to be interred in the royal sepulchre. These executions of the younger Ottoman princes, became afterward very frequent.

Amurath had yet one traitor to punisti. This Amu rat

'„. . . 111 reduces

fame Sineis, ever a perjurer or rebel, who, three proafter having raised from the dirt the'pretended vi Mustapha, had since betrayed him for the government of Smyrna and IJphesus, from which he had been first turned out, began to be desirous

N of

j.c.i424, 0f shaking off the conditions on which he had

to 1429. °

Heg. 8i7, made his peace; he refused, or at least neglected, «—v—J to send to Adrianople the imposts of his province. The sultan eagerly seized the opportunity of chastifing this scoundrel, and of re-entering a fine province; he sent against him Kalil, the bro- i ther-in-law and friend of the vizier Bajazet,whora Sineis had caused tp be cruelly massacred in the tent of the pretended Mustapha. Kalil, inspired by his hatred, marched at the head of fifty thousand men. The rebel was defeated, and obliged to flee with a few followers. It was in vain that he sought allies among the tributary sovereigns, whom he supposed animated like himself with a desire of shaking off the yoke. Several would have been happy to execute it; but not one durst put confidence in Sineis; He, who had several times made his master tremble at the head of an army, was taken like a malefactor, after having wandered a long time, and punished as he merited. Amurath re-united two provinces besides this to his empire, without much bloodshed: that of Sipha or Sinope, (a part of Natolia,) and Ipsala in Europe. The sovereign of the first had excused himself from paying the tribute; lerman, who possessed the latter in Romania, chose rather to declare himself at once a real subject, than appear to enjoy some sovereign rights, dependant on the caprice of a prince always ready to crush him. The emperor


loaded Ierman with presents, and made him J-c- I&*•

to 1429,

sangiac of lpsala. The new governor considered Hes- 8*7,
his fortune and life secure whilst he served a *—v—»
master of whom it was too dangerous to be
either the neighbour or the enemy.
• Amurath did not forget his hatred against the TheGreek

** ° emperor

Greeks. As soon as he had arranged his Asiatic concludes a

rr> 1 n peace with

affairs, he repassed the straits, and turned his thesuitan;

..-.-- , „ , . but Thes

arms against the Morea and all the maritime saionk*,
places towards the mouth of the Strymon in ceded
Macedonia. He took Dercos, Settunion, and the°condi-
Mesembria, always taking care to ravage and treaty", so!
impoverish the country. John Paleologus ear- protection
nestly sought peace: in order to obtain it, he netknsT1'
consented to abandon all the towns that the
Turkish emperor had taken, even Thessalonica,
which had not yet surrendered, to erase the
wall of six miles long, built along the isthmus
of Corinth in order to shelter the Morea from
the incursions of the Turks; (it was called
Hexamilium, as well as the town at its foot ;)
and to pay besides an annual tribute 01- three
hundred thousand aspers. These conditions were
sufficiently advantageous to content Amurath;
but when the sultan thought the peace settled,
John Paleologus pretended, that he had no right
to give up Thessalonica, as he had agreed to.
During the negociation between the two em-
perors, the Thessalonians, through fear of be-
coming slaves, had made an attempt upon the

N 2 liberty

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