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'* that Ali has just been deposed in the name of '* the Arabians; I depose him likewise in the "name of the Syrians; and since the califate is "vacant, I appoint Moavia to it, and 1 invest him "with the sovereign power, as I put this ring "on my finger." The Arabians, deceived, protested loudly against this wile, and the two parties separated more enemies than ever.

Whilst Ali's cause was betraying at Saffein, this caliph was employed in calming a sedition near Cusa. The same soldiers, who had refused to fight against the Alcoran, considered as a crime their master"s having left to the judgment of men, what ought, they said, to be decided by God alone. Thirteen thousand of these soldiers took possession of a town in Arabia called Naarvan, declaring that they would no longer acknowledge Ali for their caliph, unless he disclaimed the arbitrators that he had left at Saffein. As Ali had given his word, he thought he ought not to retract it; instead of replying to these rebels, he marched against them. On his arrival near Naarvan, he placed the Alcoran on the end of a pike in sight of the town, 'publishing, that he would pardon all the soldiers who should repair to this enjien; but that those who should persist in the rebellion would be put to the sword. • In those times of trouble and fervor, the Alcoran, as has already been observed, was more respected than the caliphs. Nine thousand of the malew. contents contents returned to what they considered as the ensign of their faith. Air having easily entered the town, which was badly fortified, ordered all the remaining rebels lo be put to death, without sparing one of them.

It was after this victory, or rather oarnage, that AH learned what had passed at Saffein; he was informed likewise that Egypt had surrendered to Moavia through .the negligence and bad administration of its governors, and that Amru, the arbitrator who had attempted to strip him of the califate in order to invest his master in it, had .entered peaceably into Egypt, pretending to govern it in the name of Moavia. Arabia was , not more quiet than the other parts of the Mahometan empire. Moavia sent to ravage several cantons of the Yemen, which forms a part of it. The Mahometans, who always thought themselves fighting for their law, were yet more cruel against their strayed brethren, than against those whom they called Infidels. The shedding of so much blood raised up assassins, who thought to deliver their country by exterminating its oppressors.

Three men, accomplices with several others, took, the one the road to Cusa to assassinate Ali, the second that of Damascus to nerform the fame on Moavia, and the third tha^of Grand Cairo with the like intention on Amru. Moavia received only a wound which was not mortal; Amru being sick the day on which the assassin

f2 proposed proposed to kill him, another iman,* who said prayers in his stead, received the fatal stroke. Ali perished by the fatal hand that was armed - against him; he was assassinated in the mosque. At first the wound did not appear mortal; but it was soon found that the instrument was poisoned. The caliph ordered them to kill his murderer with a single stroke, after he should be dead.

Ali was assassinated in the seventy-third year of his age, and the fortieth of the hegira, having reigned four years and ten months. This caliph had more knowledge, more elevation of mind, and more genius, than any of his predecessors; but he was more unfortunate than all of them. Some person asking him why the reigns of Abubeker and Omar had been so peaceable, and Othman's and .his, on the contrary, so tempestuous: "That is," said he, "because Abu"beker and Omar were served by Othman and "me, and we only by such as you." There is a Centiloquium by Ali: it contains a hundred maxims, full of force and reason, which' have been translated from the Arabic into several other oriental languages. This is one of them: He, who would be rich without possessions, powerful without subjects, and subject without master, has but to serve God, and he Jhall find theje three things. The Persians, and several other Mussulman na


* Iman, a M»hometari priest.

tig,ns, who still follow the sect of AH, consider t
him as the first-lawful successor of Mahomet;
they treat the three former caliphs as usurpers,
and don't admit the Sunna, which we have said
is the collection of the ancient traditions of Ma-
homet, from whence the Turks, the opponents
of the sect of Ali,vhave taken the name of Sun-
nites, and they name Shiites the followers of AH,
who raise the memory of that caliph almost as
high as Mahomet's. Some hours before Ali's
death, he was asked, who should reign after him;
"Mahomet," replied he, "did not name his
"successor, nor shall I mine." He was no sooner
dead, than they all turned their eyes on his son

This prince was unanimously proclaimed in Assaa.^ ^ Cusa; but he had neither the force nor ambition /

necessary to secure the throne which Moavia had shaken. The rebels made new efforts immediately on his beginning his reign, and it became necessary to fend troops against them on the confines of Arabia. The peaceable Assan regretted ." already the blood that was about to be spilt; and whilst he was preaching submission and concord in the mosque at Cuba, Moavia, at the head'of a powerful army, was promising the delights of Paradise to those who should vanquish the pretended assassins of Othman, or should die in arms against them. The warlike Arabians conceived /contempt for a prince so sparing of human blood.


Asian - soon perceived that they were growing tired of his lenity and efforts for peace. He no sooner learned that a battle had been fought on the frontiers of Arabia, in which neither party had gotten the advantage, and that the hope of an accommodation was more distant than ever, than he thought only of stripping himself of a dignity so foreign to his nature. Against the consent of all the partisans of the house of Ali, he sent to desire of Moavia an annuity during his life, and went to pass his days in obscurity at Medina, practising becoming virtues, and distributing to the wretched all the riches which Moavia had left him in exchange for the califate. Moavia, Tne implacable Moavia, sole possessor of the throne, was still willing to fear the man who had resigned it to him without defending it. The agreement between Asian and him was, that, after Moavia's death, the dignity of caliph inould return to the family of Ali. The usurper, as ambitious for his posterity as himself, ardently desired to secure them the califate. The death of Asian, who as yet had no children, was determined on. His favorite wife engaged to poison him, on the promise of being married to Moavia's son. But he, who had concerted his death, and reaped the advantage of it, despised so much the perpetrator, that he refused to fulfil his engagement.


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