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Roderick being violently in love with the young Caya, daughter to count Julian, was ralh enough to violate her. · The fiery Julian punished his

country for the faults of its master; he intro• duced the African Mussulmen into that part of

Spain which he governed. Mufa, who commanded for the caliph in Africa, fent troops to the count: in less than three years the Mufful, men defeated Roderick's army, new him, and made themselves masters of all his kingdom. The barbarians having afterward revolted against their chief, formed as many states in Spain as there were governors; but they were unable to drive out the Christians, entirely, who, having thereon retired into the mountains of Asturias, disputed their ancient country with the Muffulmen for more than seven hundred years, with unequal fortune and rather slow success, and they did not entirely destroy the Mahometan empire in Spain 'till the end of the fifteenth century, under the reign of Ferdinand V. and Isabella, surnamed the Catholic.

After Walid I. eight caliphs of the Ommiasian race poffessed the throne for about thirty years : they were called, Solyman I. Omar II, Iefid II, Hefam, Walid II. Iesid III. Ibrahim, and Mervan II. We shall pass over the seven first, as we have found nothing in their reigns which concerns the Mussulınan religion,

An h .

.Mervan II. An empire founded solely on force must sooner

or later yield to a superior force. The Syrians, the Egyptians, and particularly the Arabians, grew weary at length of being governed by usurpers, whose throne was cemented with oceans of blood only. The first year of the reign of Mervan, a prince excessively cruel, the people revolted at Emessa, Alexandria, and Cufa. At first the caliph was every where vanquisher, and every where inexorable: the affrighted Mussulmen deliberated with one another, why they obeyed these fangui. nary masters, whilst the race of their prophet was groaning, like themselves, under oppression. But the eyes of these malecontents never turned towards the descendants of Ali: they were sunk into obscurity. .

The Abbasians, descendants of Abbas, a cousin of Mahomet, grandson, like Ali, of his paternal grandfather, were becoine powerful by immense riches, for which they were indebted to commerce, and the little attention that, 'till then, the Ommiafians had paid to them. Those of the house of, Abbas were not like the Aliians, sons of the daughter of the founder of the Muffulmen; but the people, dazzled with their riches, respected in them the blood of their prophet, much more than in the descendants of Ali. The chief of this fortunate race, named Mahomet like him from whom he derived all his glory, was already far advanced in age: he had three sons left out

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of a numerous family; he shewed them to the
Muffulmen as the pillars of their faith, the restorers
of their empire, and the lawful masters that God
had given them. A multitude of malecontents
repaired to Moloima, the residence of Mahomet,
and took the oaths to that emir, who died a few
days after, leaving Ibrahim, his eldest son, at the
head of this great enterprise. The revolt being
well prepared, broke out at the same time in the
Korazan, Arábia, Egypt, Syria, and Mesopotamia.
The Abbasian party was almost every where vic-
torious; but their chief fell in the midst of his
success. As Ibrahim was desirous of travelling
through his new dominions, he undertook a pil.
grimage to Mecca with more pomp than safety.
His escort, sufficiently numerous for a prince who
shews himself to peaceable subjects, was insuffi-
cient for a conqueror who had not reduced all
the enemies of his new power. He was 'attacked
near Arran, a town that still held for Mervan II.
and, after a vigorous resistance, Ibrahim fell into
the hands of his enemies, who loaded him with
chains. He died the next day poisoned; but the
Abbasian party did not perish with its chief.
· Abul Abbas, Mahomet's second son, was pro- Abul Abas,
claimed at Cufa, and prepared to avenge the Abbadian.
death of his brother. An army which Mervan
II. had remaining in Irac was cut to pieces by
Moslem the governor of that province, Mervan
himself, at the head of another corps, his last re-

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fource, was vanquished by this fame Mollem, He filed into Syria, and presented himself unescorted before the gates of Damascus, which he could not get opened to him ; his late subjects granted him no other favor than not to deliver him to the conqueror. The unfortunate caliph retired into Egypt, where death attended him. The inhabitants of Busirlair, having received him with a perfidious respect, put him to death in their mosque, and carried his head to Abul Abbas. Thus ended, in the 1320 year of the hegira, the 750th of Jesus Christ, the dynasty of these fanguinary Ommiasians, who had usurped the fovereign power from the house of Mahomet, and had, almost all, made use of his name and fceptre to oppress his descendants.

The Abbasian caliphs did not shed less blood than their predecessors. The power of these princes could be established only by force. Mervan's head, exposed in the capital, seemed to promise his conqueror a peaceable reign, when the Aliians, drawn from their obscurity by some malecontents, and even by the remaining partifans of the Ommiasians who had lost their parents and possessions, attempted to revive the pretensions of the house of Ali. General Moslem reassembled the army; for the Abbasians, like che Ommiafians, fought by their lieutenants : he gained a bloody battle at Calcidena in Syria, and obtained several other advantages, Three of


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Ali's descendants loft their heads for this new attempt. Moslem, after having vanquished the subjects of the caliph, fought with the same fuccess the Greeks, who attempted to make irruptions into Armenia. The califate of Abul Abbas is remarkable, only by the numerous victories won by Moslem. This prince reigned four years; history says but little of him personally.

Almansor, the brother and successor of Abul Almanfor. Abbas, began his reign with causing to be strangled, on a very night fufpicion, this same Moslemn -. who had had such constant success, and who, if the Arabian historians may be believed, had put fix hundred thousand men to the sword in the Abbasian cause. The inhabitants of Hasemia, a town where the caliph resided, irritated against this ungrateful prince, excited a revolt and attempted to take his life. Almansor punished the rebels, and had several Aliians put to death with them, whom he believed or feigned to believe the authors of the fedition.

This event induced Almansor to change the seat of the empire: he laid the foundation of a city in the Babylonian Irac, on the confines of Persia, at a day's journey from the ancient Babylon. This new city was named Bagdad, from the name of a hermitage found on the spot. The undertaking was executed with dispatch, notwithstanding the troubles which agitated the empire during the whole reign of Almansor; for one


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