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Primus ego Aonios illo præeunte recessus
Lustrabam, et bifidi sacra vireta jugi,
Castalio sparsi læta ter ora mero.
Induxitque auro lanea terga novo,
Gramine, bisque tuas abstulit Auster opes :
Aut linguæ dulces aure bibisse sonos.
Quam sit opus monitis res docet, ipsa vides.
Mulcentem gremio pignora chara suo, Forsitan aut veterum prælarga volumina patrum
Versantem, aut veri biblia sacra Dei,
Grande salutiferæ religionis opus.
Dicere quam decuit, si modo adesset, herum.
destos, Verba verecundo sis memor ore loqui :
32. See Comus, 911. seq.
then suppose, went abroad in
February, 1623, when Milton Thus I sprinkle on thy breast, &c.
was about fifteen. But compare 33. Viderat is the reading in their prose correspondence, where Milton's edition, 1673. Vidit Milton says, “ quod autem plus1695, and in Tonson, 1695, and quam triennio nunquam ad te Fenton.
scripserem." lbid. Two years
49. -oculos in humum defica month. In which had passed, modestos,] Ovid, Amor. iii. vi. three vernal equinoxes, two 67. springs and two winters. See
-Illa oculos in humum dejecta mothe first note. Young, we may destos.
Hæc tibi, si teneris vacat inter prælia Musis,
Mittit ab Angliaco littore fida manus.
Fiat et hoc ipso gratior illa tibi.
Icaris a lento Penelopeia viro.
Ipse quod ex omni parte levare nequit ?
Et pudet officium deseruisse suum.
Crimina diminui, quæ patuere, solent.
Vulnifico pronos nec rapit ungue leo. Sæpe sarissiferi crudelia pectora Thracis
Supplicis ad mæstas delicuere preces : Extensæque manus avertunt fulminis ictus,
Placat et iratos hostia parva Deos.
Neve moras ultra ducere passus Amor;
In tibi finitimis bella tumere locis,
Et jam Saxonicos arma parasse duces.
55. The allusion is to a well- 1626, when this Elegy was writknown Epistle of Ovid.
ten, the imperialists under Ge61. Tu modo da venium fasso,] neral Tilly, were often encounOvid, Epist. ex Pont. iv. ii. 23. tered by Christian, Duke of “ Tu modo da veniam fasso. Brunswick, and the Dukes of The same combination occurs in Saxony, particularly Duke WilOvid repeatedly.
liam of Saxon Wiemar, and the 65. Ovid, Metam. xii. 466. Duke of Saxon Lawenburgh, in “ Macedoniaque sarissa.” Lower Saxony, of which Ham
74. Et jam Saxonicos urma pa- burgh, where Young resided, is rasse duces.] About the year the capital. See v. 77. Germany,
Te circum late campos populatur Enyo,
75. Et sata carne virum jam cruor arva rigat; Germanisque suum concessit Thracia Martem,
Illuc Odrysios Mars pater egit equos ; Perpetuoque comans jam deflorescit oliva, Fugit et ærisonam Diva perosa tubam,
80 Fugit io terris, et jam non ultima virgo
Creditur ad superas justa volasse domos.
Vivis et ignoto solus inopsque solo ;
85 Sede peregrina quæris egenus opem. Patria dura parens, et saxis sævior albis
Spumea quæ pulsat littoris unda tui, Siccine te decet innocuos exponere fætus, Siccine in externam ferrea cogis humum,
90 Et sinis ut terris quærant alimenta remotis
Quos tibi prospiciens miserat ipse Deus, in general, either by invasion, or war in the Netherlands, not long interior commotions, was a scene after this Elegy was written. of the most bloody war from the See v. 71. seq. and the first note. year 1618, till later than 1640.
86. Sede peregrina quæris egeGustavus Adolphus conquered nus opem.] Before and after 1630, the greater part of Germany many English ministers, puri, about 1631. See note on El. iii. tanically affected, left their cures,
and settled in Holland, where 84. Vivis et ignoto solus inops- they became pastors of separate que solo;] Ovid, of Achæmenides, congregations: when_matters Metam. xiv. 217.
took another turn in England, Solus, inops, exspes.
they returned, and were
warded for their unconforming These circumstances, added to obstinacy, in the new presbyothers, leave us strongly to sus terian establishment. Among pect, that Young was a non these were Nye, Burroughs, conformist, and probably com- Thomas Goodwin, Simpson, and pelled to quit England on account Bridge, eminent members of the of his religious opinions and prac. Assembly of Divines. See Wood, tice. He seems to have been Ath. Oxon. ii. 504. Neale's Hist. driven back to England, by the Pur. iii. 376.
supr. v. 9.
Et qui læta ferunt de cælo nuntia, quique
Quæ via post cineres ducat ad astra, docent ? Digna quidem Stygiis quæ vivas clausa tenebris,
Æternaque animæ digna perire fame! Haud aliter vates terræ Thesbitidis olim
Pressit inassueto devia tesqua pede, Desertasque Arabum salebras, dum regis Achabi
Effugit, atque tuas, Sidoni dira, manus :
100.-—Sidoni dira,] Jezebel, the " and chariots rushing to battle, wife of Ahab, was the daughter 6 and the distant hum of clashof Ethbaal king of the Sidonians. ing arms and groaning men, Sidoni is a vocative, from Sidonis, “ terrified their numerous army." often applied by Ovid to Europa Terruit et densas pavido cum rege the daughter of Agenor king of cohortes, &c. Sidon or Syria. Fast. b. v. 610.
See 2 Kings vii. 5. “ For the Sidoni, sic fueras accipienda Jovi. “ Lord had made the host of
Some of these scriptural al " the Syrians to hear a noise of lusions are highly poetical, and “ chariots and a noise of horses, much in Milton's manner. His even the noise of a great host, friend, who bears a sacred cha “ &c.” Sionæa arx is the city racter, forced abroad for his piety of Samaria, now besieged by the and religious constancy by the Syrians, and where the king of persecutions of a tyrannic tri- Israel now resided. It was the bunal, and distressed by war and capital of Samaria.
capital of Samaria. Prisca Dawant in a foreign country, is mascus was the capital of Syria. compared to Elijah the Tishbite Pavido cum rege is Benhadad, the wandering alone over the Ara- king of Syria. In the sequel of bian deserts, to avoid the menaces the narrative of this wonderful of Ahab, and the violence of Je consternation and Aight of the zebel. See 1 Kings xix. 3. Syrians, the solitude of their vast seq. He then selects a most deserted
affords a most af striking miracle, under which fecting image, even without any the power of the Deity is dis- poetical enlargement. “We came played in Scripture as a protec to the camp of the Syrians, tion in battle, with reference to " and behold there was no man his friend's situation, from the - there, neither voice of man; surrounding dangers of war. “ but horses tied, and asses tied, “ You are safe under the radiant " and the tents as they were.' “ shield of him, who in the dead Ibid. vii. 10. This is like a scene “ of night suddenly dispersed the of inchantment in romance. “ Assyrians, while the sound of 100. Mr. Warton properly re
an unseen trumpet was clearly fers to 2 Kings vii. for the mira“heard in the empty air, and cle alluded to in ver. 115–122. " the noises of invisible horses But Milton had another miracle
Talis et horrisono laceratus membra flagello,
Paulus ab Æmathia pellitur urbe Cilix,
Finibus ingratus jussit abire suis.
Nec tua concutiat decolor ossa metus.
Intententque tibi millia tela necem,
Deque tuo cuspis nulla cruore bibet.
Ille tibi custos, et pugil ille tibi;
Assyrios fudit nocte silente viros ;
Misit ab antiquis prisca Damascus agris,
Aere dum vacuo buccina clara sonat,
Currus arenosam dum quatit actus humum,
Et strepitus ferri, murmuraque alta virum.
Et tua magnanimo pectore vince mala;
also in view, v. 113. the deliver- ping and imprisonment were ance of Jerusalem, Sionæa arx, among the punishments of the arfrom Sennacherib, king of As- bitrary Star-chamber, the threats syria; see 2 Kings xix. 35. Regis Achabi, which Young fled " that night, the angel of the to avoid. " Lord went out and smote in 109. At nullis vel inerme latus, “ the camp of the Assyrians, an &c.] See the same philosophy 6 hundred fourscore and five in Comus, v. 421. " thousand.” E.
123. Et tu (quod superest, &c.] 101. Talis et horrisono lacera. For many obvious reasons, at is tus membra flagello, &c.] Whip- likely to be the true reading.