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3. Statement of the Receipts into the National Treasury, from Customs, Internal Revenue and Direct Taces, and sales of Public Lands, fractions of a dollar being excluded.

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* For the year ending June 30.

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4. Statement of the Expenditures of the United States, exclusive of payments *pe f

on account of the Public Debt, an

rom Trust Funds, fractions excluded.

Civil list, Aggregate of Expenditures. foreign inter- icourse, and Military estab- Naval estab- In each year. In or1 Years. miscellaneous. lishment. lishment. four years. 1789–91. $1,083,401 $835,618 $570 $1,919,589 1792 où io, 53 | "isio $8,797,493 1793 472,450 1,237,620 1,710,070 1794 705,598 2,733,540 61,409 3,500, 1795 1,367,031 2,573,059 410,562 4,350,658 1796 772,485 1,474,661 274,784 2,521,930 12,083,205 1797 1,246,904 1,194,055 382,632 2,823,591 1798 1,111,038 2,130,837 1,381.348 4,623.223 1799 1,039,392 2,582, 2,858,082 6,480,167 1800 1,337,613 2,625,041 3,448,716 7,411,370 21,338,351 1801 1,114,768 1,755,477 2,111,424 4,981,669 1802 1,462,929 1,358,589 915,562 3,737,080 1803 1,842,636 944,958 1.215,231 4,002,825 1804 2,191,009 1,072,017 1,189,833 4,452,859 17,174,433 1805 3,768,588 991,136 1,597,500 6,357,224 1806 2,891,037 1,540,431 1,649,641 6,081,109 1807 1,697.897 1,564,611 1,722, 4,984,572 1808 1,423,286 3,196,985 1,884,068 ,504,339 23,927,244 1809 1,215,804 3,771,109 2,427,759 7,414,672 1810 1,101,145 ******* 1,654,244 5,311,082 1811 1,367,291 2,259,747 1,965,566 5,592,604 1812 1,683,088 12,187,046 3,959,365 17,829,499 36,147,857 1818 1,729,435 19,906,362 6,446, 28,082,897 1814 2,208,029 20,608,366 7,311,291 30,127,686 1815 2,898,871 15,394,700 8,660, 26,953,571 1816 2,989,742 16,475,412 3,908,278 23,373,432 108,537,086 1817 3,518,937 8,621,075 3,314,598 15,454,610 1818 3,835,83 7,019,140 2,953.695 13,808,674 1819 3,067,212 9,385,421 3,847,640 16,300,273 1820 2,592,022 6,154,518 4,387,990 13,134,530 58,698,087 1821 2,223,122 5,181,114 3,319.243 10,723,479 1822 1,967,996 5,635,187 2,224,459 9,827,642 1823 2,022,094 5,258,295 2,503,766 9,784,155 1824 7,155,308 5,270,255 2,904, 330,145 || 45,665,421 1825 2,748,544 5,692,831 3,049,084 11,490,459 1826 2,600,178 6,243,236 4,218,902 13,062,316 1827 2,314,77 5,675.7 4,263,878 12,254,397 1828 2,886,052 5,701,203 3,918,786 12,506,041 49,318,213 1829 3,092,214 ,250,530 3,308,745 12,651,489 1830 3.228,416 6,752,689 ,239, 13,220,534 1831 3,064,346 943, 3.856,183 13,863,768 1832 4,574,841 7,982,877 3,956,370 16,514,088 56.249,879 1833 5,051,789 13,096,152 3,901,357 22,049,298 1884 § 10,064,428 3,956,260 18,420,467 1835 3,720,167 9,420,313 3,864,939 17,005,419 1836 5,388,871 18,466,110 5,800,763 ,655, 87,130,428 1837 5,524,253 19,417,274 6,852,060 81,793,587 1838 5,666,703 19,936,312 5,975.7 31,578,785 1839 994.5 14,268,981 6,225, 25,488,547 1840 5,581,878 11,621,438 6,124,456 23,327.77 112,188,691 1841 6,490,881 18,704,882 6,001,077 26,196,840 1842 6,775,625 9,188,469 *** * * 24,361,337 6 mos. of '43. 2,867,289 4,158,384 3,672,718 10,698,891 *1844 5,231,747 8,231,317 6,496,991 19,960,055 81,216,623 *1845 5,608,207 9,533,203 6,228,639 21,370,049

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* For the year ending June 30.

5. Statement of the Debt#. the United States, the Total Value of Imports and Exports, and the Total Tonnage, from 1791 to 1845.

Years, Debt. Imports. Exports. Tonnage. 1791 $75,463,476 $52,200,000 $19,012,041 502,146 1792 77,227,924 31,500,000 - 20,753,098 564,437 1793 80.852.6 81,100,000 26,109,572 491,780 1794 - 34,600,000 33,026,233 628,817 1795 80,747,587 69,756,268 47,989,472 747,964 1796 83,762,172 67,064,097 831,900 1797 82,064,479 56,850,206 876,913 1798 79,228,529 61,527,097 898, 1799 78.408,670 78,665,522 : 1800 82,976,294 70,971,780 : 1801 83,038,051 94,115,925 1,033,219 1802 80,712,632 72,483,160 ,10 1803 77,054,686 55,800,033 949,147 1804 86,427,121 77,699,074 1,042, 1805 82,312,150 ,566,021 1,140,369 1806 75,723.271 101,536,963 1,208,735 1807 69,218,399 108,343,150 1,268,548 1808 65.196,318 22,430,960 1,242,595 1809 57,023,192 59,400,000 52.203,231 1,350,281 1810 53,173,217 85,400,000 66,757,974 1,424,783 1811 48,005,588 53,400,000 61,316,831 1,232,502 1812 45.209,788 77,030,000 38,527,236 1,269,997 1813 55,962,828 22,005,000 27,855,997 1,166,628 1814 81.487,846 12,965,000 ,927,441 1,159,209 1815 99,833,660 52,557,753 1,368,127 1816 127,334,934 ,920,452 1,372.218 1817 123,491,965 * 87,671.569 1,399,911. 1818 103,466,634 21,7 93,281, 1,225,184 1819 95,529,648 87.1 70,142,521 1260,751 1820 91,015,566 74,450,000 69,691,669 1,280,166 1821 89,987,428 62, 64,974, 1,298,958 1822 93,546,677 o 72,160, F.324,699 1823 90,875,877 7,579.267 74,699,030 1,336,565 1824 90.269,778 80,549,007 75,986,657 1,389,163 1825 83,788,433 96,340,075 99,535,388 1,423,112 1826 81,054,060 84,974,477 77,595,322 1,534,190 1827 73,987,357 79.484,063 82.324,827 1,620,608 1828 67,475,044 88,509,824 72.264,686 1,741,392 1829 58,421,414 74,492,52 72,358, 1.260,978 1830 48,565,406 70,876,920 73,849,508 1,191,776 1831 39,123,192 103,191,134 81,310,583 1,267,846 1832 24,322,235 101,029.266 87,176,943 1,439,450 1833 7,001,699 108,118,311 90,140,433 1,601,150 1834 4,760,082 126,521,332 104,336,973 1,758,907 1835 37,733 149,895,742 121,693,577 1,824,940 1836 37,513 189,980,035 128,663,040 1,892,102 1837 1,878,224 140,989,217 117,419,376 1,896,685 1838 4,857,660 108,486,616 113,717.404 1,995,639 1839 11,983.738 121,028 162,092,132 2,096,478 1840 104,805,891 2,180,764 1841 121,851,803 2,130,744 1842 ,691, 2,092,390 1843 ,346, 2,158,602 1844+ 43,996 111.200,046t 2,280,095 1845t 16,801,647 114,646,606t 2,417,002

* Only nine months of 1843. f For the year ending June 30.

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XI. HOW MUCH DOES THE GOVERNMENT COST
th the United States and in Great Britain?

A Republican government will always be noted for the economical administration of its affairs. When the people tax themselves, they will take good care to make the burden as light as possible. In the case of war, indeed, the excitement of passion and patriotism may lead to a lavish expenditure, an4 much money will probably be wasted, because the power . and responsibility must be divided among many persons, who have comparatively but little experience on account of frequent changes in office; while in a monarchy, the reins are all held in one hand, and a permanent ministry is more able to avoid the enormous expense that is usually caused by frequent changes of plan and much vacillation of purpose. But hi peace, the merit of different administrations will be estimated almost exclusively by their relative cheapness; he who lessens the amount of taxation is always sure of the gratitude of the people. There is danger, indeed, that frugality will be carried to excess, and some of the higher interests of the people be sacrificed to their inconsiderate and ill-timed parsimony. That is false economy which dries up some of the distant sources of wealth in the attempt to save a few drops to the broad stream which rolls by our doors.

The government of this country is supposed to be the cheapest in the civilized world. Probably it is so; but exaggerated statements upon the subject are often made by those who arc not conversant enough with onr institutions to know where the greatest expense is incurred, nor in what quarters prodigality and wastefulness may exist without punishment or detection. The small salaries of persons in office are usually taken as a decisive proof of economy; but the saving thus made is often more than balanced by the unnecessary multiplication of such offices, and by carelessness or peculation in the administration of public works and in the performance of jobs by contract. The higher class of officers of the custom-house are not so well paid here as in Great Britain; but the aggregate expense of collection bears a higher ratio to the amount collected than it does in England. A similar remark is applicable also to the post-office. The British minister at Washington, we believe, has a higher salary than the President of the United States; the British minister to France certainly receives more than twice as much. The Lord Chief Justice of England has a larger salary than all the nine judges of our Supreme Court united. An English consul often has higher pay than an American ambassador; and it is a striking proof of the inequality of our system, that the same remark may be made of more than one American consul. The cost of building a ship-of-war at one of our navy yards is about twice as great as it would be if furnished by private contract. But the expenses of our government arc most frequently underestimated from losing sight of the division of labor and cost among the national, state, and city or town authorities. The whole cost of the state institutions is interpolated, as it were, between the national and civic expenditures, which create the whole burden of taxation in most European countries. Owing to the inclination of the people in this country, especially in New England, to keep as much of the administration of public affairs in their own hands as possible, the town or city taxes arc often larger than all those of the state and the national government united. There is very little centralization of power; much of the tax is voted, and many of the appropriations are made, directly by the people, in their primary assemblies.

It becomes a problem of much interest and considerable difficulty, then, to determine the aggregate cost of government in this country, and thus to compare the burden of taxation in the United States with what it is in England. We can obtain only an approximate solution. The weight of taxation can be properly, estimated only by its relation to the wealth of the country; the same burden becomes light or heavy in proportion to the ability of the people to bear it. But the aggregate of national wealth escapes all calculation or probable estimate. There are no data on which to found even a plausible conjecture on this point. Valuations of all the real and personal estate within certain towns and states are often formed, it is true, and for the very purpose of taxation; but these give only a rude approximation to the relatice wealth of individuals, towns, and counties; or they may enable us to compare one year with another, so as to show the progress of wealth in the community. No one supposes that they give the true amount of absolute wealth. Many kinds of property are excluded from them altogether; others are admitted at a rate known to he far below their real value. In different states, also, they are formed on wholly different principles, so they do not enable us to compare one state with another.

The corrected aggregate valuation of all real and personal property in the state of New York, in 1845, was but $605,646,095; the city of New York alone probably contains as much wealth as this. The aggregate of state, city, and town taxes in the same year was $4,170,527 95, which is a rate of 6 mills and 888 thousandths of a mill on a dollar of this assumed valuation. The actual rate of taxation for these purposes cannot have been more than one mill on the dollar, or one thousandth part of the whole property.

The valuation of all wealth in Massachusetts, in 1840, was nearly 300 millions, — about half as great as New York, — while the population is little more than one fourth as large. The valuation of Boston in 1845 was about 136 millions; its actual wealth greatly exceeds this sum. No returns are made in Massachusetts to show the aggregate amount of town and city taxes throughout the commonwealth.

The valuation of the state of Ohio in 1845 professes to give the aggregate only of that property which is taxable by law; the amount is

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