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If the above tabular history of the Philadelphia schools be divided into two periods, the year 1835 may be considered as marking the termination of the Lancasterian system, and the year 1837 the commencement of the new system. For the purposes of comparison, the year 1836 should be thrown out of the account, as the schools were then in a transition state. Adopting this division as the basis of a comparison, we find the following results. During the Lancasterian period, the average number of pupils to each teacher was 236; and the average annual cost of tuition, including all expenses, $5.63. During the latter period, the corresponding items are, number of pupils to a teacher, 74 ; average cost, $6.49. It thus appears, that the whole additional cost of introducing the High and Primary Schools and the assistant teachers, and of reducing the number of pupils to each teacher from 236 to 74, has been only the average of 86 cents per annum, or less than 22 cents per quarter. The schools of Philadelphia, as now organized, are divided into four distinct classes. These are as follows: I. The Central High School. This contains 419 pupils, arranged in 8 divisions, whose average age on admission was 14 years and 5 months, and who have a four years'course of study, equal and in some respects similar to that pursued in American colleges. Pupils can gain admittance to the High School only by having been at least one year in the lower schools. The average time of their connection with the lower schools previous to their admission to the High School is 3 years and 7 months. The privilege of admission to this institution operates as a powerful stimulus both to the teachers and pupils of the lower schools. Its influence, in fact, pervades the whole system. II. The Grammar Schools. These rank next in order after the High School, and are 48 in number. In these schools are taught English Grammar, Geography and Arithmetie, Heading and -Writing. They are all in large commodious buildings erected and furnished for the purpose. A Gramma* School usually contains 250 pupils, seated in one common room for study, with class rooms adjoining for recitation. The pupils are classed into 5 divisions, having 1 Principal and 4 Assistant Teachers. In the boys' schools, the Principal is a male, but the assistants are females. In the girls'schools, all the teachers are females. III. The Secondary Schools. These teach Reading, Spelling, and the first four rules of Arithmetic. A Secondary School contains usually 250 children, arranged in 4 divisions, with 1 Principal and 3 Assistant Teachers, all females. IV. The Primary Schools. In these, the children commence with the alphabet, and learii the elements of reading and spelling, and the arithmetical tables. A Primary School consists usually of about 200 children, arranged In 3 divisions, with 1 Principal and 2 Assistant Teachers, all females.
Tliese four classes of schools are intended to be, and to some extent are, concentric. The secondary school is the centre of a cluster of primaries, the grammar school of a number of secondaries, and the high school the centre of all the grammar schools. A boy at 4 \ ears of age may enter the lowest division of the primary to learn his alphabet and be promoted according to his progress in successive years through 3 regularly ascending divisions in the primary, 4 in the secondary, 5 in the grammar, and 8 in the high school. The*** schools, being all under one common and controlling Board, are minutely fitted into each other and dovetailed together, and present an instructive instance of the efficiency act! economy resulting from a proper classification and division of labor. Nearly forty thousand children are now enjoying the benefits of a system which takes a child from tho alphabet and carries him through the differential calculus; and yet the average expense, /Deluding not only tuition and the ordinary incidental expenses, but books and stationery, <which are furnished gratuitously,) including also the interest ou all the money expended from the commencement on real estate and school furniture, is only $6.50 per annum, or £1-62% perquarter.
The expenditures for the public schools of Philadelphia for the year ending July 1,1845, were S'227,205.42. Of this sum, $33,214.30 was received from the State ; the rest was raised by taxation. The following tables show with some minuteness the manner in which this money was expended, and a general summary of the other important statistics of the for 1845.
I. Expenditures for account of the Public Schools of Philadelphia, from July 1st, 1844, to June 30th, 1845, inclusice, abstracted from Controller's Ledger.
II. Summary of Schools, Scholars, Teachers, Controllers and Directors of the Philadelphia Public Schools for the year 1845.
Pennsylnania Hospital for the Insane.— This is is a private charitable institution, receiving no assistance from the city or State, and expending all its income for the benevolent objects of its foundation. It was founded m 1752, and up to 1841 received insane as well as other sick patients in the buildings in the city of Philadelphia. In 1841, the insane were removed to a country location, two miles west of the city, and this new establishment •was then styled the " Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane." Up to the period just referred to, nearly 40,000 patients had been admitted into the Hospital in the city, and of these, 4,333 were insane. Patients were received into the Hospital for the Insane, without reference to the residence of the applicant, the duration of the disease, or its curability. Jfo patient is received for less than 3 months; but by paying board for that period, a patient can be removed at any time. Incurable cases, supported by their friends, may remain indefinitely in the Hospital. A fixed number of recent indigent cases are maintained on the funds of the house for a limited period; but these, if not improving or likely to improve at the end of six months, are discharged to make room for others. Cases of mania a potu «re not received into this Hospital.
At the close of the year 1845, there were 169 patients under care. The highest number in the house at one time was 174. The average number for the whole year has been 152; being more than at any previous period in the history of the institution. Of those discharged in 1846, 80 were cured, 5 much improved, 24 unproved, 30 stationary, 20 died; total, 159. From the opening of this institution in 1841, up to the end of 1845, there have been 769 admissions, of which 447 were males, and 322 females. Discharged, or died, 500; 351 males, and 239 females; and there remain 86 males and 83 females, total 169, Of these numbers, there were 269 single males, and 136 single females ; total number of single, 405. Married, males 152, females 139; total married, 291. Widows, 47 ; widowers, 26. Of the 500 discharges since the opening in 1841. 313 have left " cured," 50 " much improved," 79 "improved," 88 " stationary," and 70 " have died."
Of the 769 patients, 373 were cases of mania, 208 males, and 165 females; 143 were cases of melancholia, 82 males and 51 females; 128 were cases of monomania, 76 mates and 52 females; 119 were cases of dementia, 76 males and 43 females; 6 were cases of delirium, 5 males and 1 female. In proportion to the number of admissions, the ratio of recoveriea has been larger in the cases of mania than in either of the other forms of insanity. In melancholia and monomania, they have been nearly equal; in dementia, there have been very few: and of those registered as entering with delirium, none.
Salary. William Temple, of Smyrna, Acting Gocernor, (term of
office expires on the 3d Tuesday in January, 1847,) $1,333 1-3
George P. Fisher, of Dover, Secretary of State, Fees and 400
James S. Buckmaster, of Frcderica, State Treasurer, 500
Abraham'Staats, of Fieldsboro', Auditor, 500
James Booth, of New Castle, Chief Justice, $1,200
Samuel M. Harrington, of Dover, Associate Justice, 1,200
John J. Milligan, of Wilmington, do. 1,000
David Hazzard, of Milton, do. 1,000
Edward W. Gilpin, of Wilmington, Attorney General, Fees and 500
Court of Chancery. TCensey Johns, Jr., of New Castle, Chancellor, 1,100
Orphans' Court. The Chancellor and one Judge of the Superior Court.
Joshua E. Driver,
of New Castle,
Register of Wills,
Thomas G. PRATT, of Pr. George's Co., Governor, (term expires
Fees. Fees. Fees,
Use of a house and $4,200
2,000 2,500 800
$2,500 2,200 2,200 2,200 2,200 2,200 Fees.
$2,400 1,500 1,500
The State is divided into six judicial districts, each comprising two, three, or four counties. For each district there are a chief judge and two associates, who constitute the County Courts for the respective counties in the district. These are the common law courts of original jurisdiction in the State; and they have jurisdiction of all claims for fifty dollars and upwards, appellate jurisdiction from the judgment of justices of the peace, and equity jurisdiption within the counties coextensive with the chancellor. The six chief judges constitute the Court of Appeals for the State, which has appellate jurisdiction of cases at law and in equity, originating in the County Courts, the Orphans' Courts, (of which there is one in each county,) and the Court of Chancery.
Total amount received in 1845, . . $966,589.00
Total amount expended in 1844, . . 948,488.84
Principal Items of Expenditure. Chief Sources of Income.
Salaries of civil officers, $11,847.19 Dividends on stocks, $79,781.33
Salaries of the Judiciary, 40,767.74|Direct taxes, 507,781.04
Expenses of Legislature, 51,460.45 Other taxes, 38,329.63
Interest on the State debt, 710,784.51 Auction duties, 18,058.23
State colonization, 11,370.001 Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co., 38,699.43
Common schools, 34,069.36 Canal companies, 74,800.00
Charitable Establishments, 6,392.00 Licenses by county courts, 103,518.75 Miscellaneous, 11,712.97 Tobacco inspection, 33,973.61
Colleges and academies, 18,899.96 Bait. & Susq. R. R. Co., 20,000.00
Whole amount of State debt, . . $11,986,784.98
Annual interest on this debt, . . 655,421.16
The sinking fund, Dec. 1,1845, amounted to 1,404,030.00
Bank stock, . . . $510,966.66
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and other stocks, 1,075,000.00
Debts due the State, . . 1,629,952.74
Total, . . $3,215,919.40
Besides this productive stock, the State holds $15,523,649.95 of capital and credits, at present unproductive, but which must, at some future time, become of considerable value.
Estimated present value of this unproductive stock, $,5,000,000.00
Baltimore And Ohio Railroad.
Cost of the railroad to Cumberland, . . $7,623,626
length of the railroad, . , . 177 miles.
Average cost, per mile, . . . $47,077