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SECTION 4. 1. The president, vice-president, and all civil officers of the Unit- Officers liable ed States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and con- mont. viction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

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SECTION 1. 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Judicial supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme Judges to and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior; and fices during shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation which for shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

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SECTION 2. 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity, Extent of the arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and more treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.

2. lo all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and Original and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the supreme risdiction of court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before court. mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the congress shall make.

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall Trial of be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the state where the said by jury, &c. crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the congresso may by law have directed.

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SECTION 3. 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying Definition of war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

2. The congress shall have power to declare the punishment of Congress to treason; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, punishment. or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.



SECTION 1. Credit in one 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public public acts, acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the

congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings, shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

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SECTION 2. Reciprocity 1. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and

immunities of citizens in the several states. Criminals 2. A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other one state to crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, sball, delivered up on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled,

be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the

crime. Runaways to 3. No person held to service or labor in one state under the laws

thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor ; but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

SECTION 3. 1. New states may be admitted by the congress into this union; initted into but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of

any other state, nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures

of the states concerned, as well as of the congress. Congress to 2. The congress shall have power to dispose of, and make all need

ful rules and regulations respecting, the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.

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SECTION 4. Republican 1. The United States shall guaranty to every state in this union a vernment republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against each state, invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive

(when the legislature can not be convened) against domestic violence.

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ARTICLE 5. 1. The congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it This constitu- necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution ; or, on the

application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution,


when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the congress; provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article : and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate.

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ARTICLE 6. 1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the Assumption adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this constitution, as under the confederation.

2. This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall This conatibe made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall the supreme be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the su- state judges preme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound by. thereby; any thing in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

3. The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the Certain offimembers of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judi- oath to sup: cial officers, both of the United states and of the several states, shall tion. be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution : but no No religious religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

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ARTICLE 7. 1. The ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall be suf- Ratification. ficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the states present,

the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one
thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independ-
ence of the United States of America, the twelfth. In witness
whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.


President, and deputy from Virginia

John Langdon,
Nicholas Gilman.

Nathaniel Gorham,
Rufus King.

William Samuel Johnson,

Roger Sherman,

Alexander Hamilton.

William Livingston,
David Brearly,
William Patterson,
Jonathan Dayton.

Benjamin Franklin,
Thomas Mifflin,
Robert Morris,
George Clymer,
Thomas Fitzsimons,
Jared Ingersoll,
James Wilson,
Gorerneur Morris,

George Read,
Guoning Bedford, jon.
John Dickinson,
Richard Bassett,
Jacob Broom.

James M'Henry,


Daniel of St. Tho. Jenifer,
Daniel Carroll.

John Blair,
James Madison, jon.

William Blount,
Richard Dobbs Spaight,
Hogh Williamson.

John Rutledge,
Charles Coteswerth Pinckney,
Charles Pinckney,
Pierce Butler.

William Few,

Abraham Baldwin.

tion declared to be ratified.

(The following extract from the journals or congress, shows the adoption of the constite tion, and the time when it took effect)


On the question to agree to the following proposition, it was re-
solved in the affirmative by the unanimous votes of nine states, viz. of
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jer-

sey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, South-Carolina, and Georgia. The constita- Whereas the convention assembled in Philadelphia, pursuant to the to be ratifed. resolution of congress of the 21st February, 1787, did, on the 17th of

September in the same year, report to the United States in congress assembled, a constitution for the people of the United States; whereupon, congress, on the 28th of the same September, did resolve unanimously, " that the said report, with the resolutions and letter accompanying the same, be transmitted to the several legislatures, in order to be submitted to a convention of delegates chosen in each state by the people thereof, in conformity to the resolves of the convention made and provided in that case :” and whereas the constitution so reported by the convention, and by congress transmitted to the several legislatures, has been ratified in the manner therein declared to be sufficient for the establishment of the same, and such ratifications duly authenticated have been received by congress, and are filed in the of

fice of the secretary; therefore, Federal em Resolved, That the first Wednesday in January next be the day February next, be the day for the electors to assemble in their respective states, and vote for a president; and that the first Wednesday in March next, be the time, and the present seat of congress the place, for commencing proceedings under the said constitution.

present for appointing electors in the several states, which before the said day 1th of March, shall have ratified the said constitution; that the first Wednesday in

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(The following amendments were proposed at the first session of the first congress of the United States, which was begun and held at the city of New-York, on the 4th of March, 1789, and were adopted by the requisite number of states. 1 vol. laws U. S. p. 72.]

ARTICLE 1. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, Restrictions or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of congress. of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

ARTICLE 2. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free Right of the state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be in- keep arms, fringed.

ARTICLE 3. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house with Quartering of out the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE 4. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, pa- Search warpers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

ARTICLE 5. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise in- Proceedings famous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, son charged except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of their rights. life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

ARTICLE 6. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a Further speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district" wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall

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