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On the part and behalf of the state of North-Carolina.
John Penn, July 21st, 1778. Jno. Williams.
Corns. Harnett,

On the part and behalf of the state of South-Carolina.
Henry Laurens,

Richard Hutson, William Henry Drayton, Thos. Heyward, jun. Jno. Mathews,

On the part and behalf of the state of Georgia. Jno. Walton, 24th July, 1778. Edwd. Langworthy. Edwd. Telfair,

[NOTE-From the circumstance of delegates from the same state having signed the articles of confederation at different times, as appears by the dates, it is probable they affixed their names as they happened to be present in congress, after they had been authorised by their constituents.]

[The preceding copy of the articles of confederation, and the foregoing note, are taken from pages 13-20 of the first volume of the edition of the laws of the United States, published by Messrs. Bioren, Duane and Weightman, in 1915, under the authority of an act of congress.

By an act of the legislature of this state, which will be found in 1st Jones and Varick's revision, p. 15, entitled "An act of accession to and approbation of, certain proposed articles of confederation and perpetual union, between the United States of America, and to authorise the delegates of the state of New-York to ratify the same, on the part and behalf of this state, in the congress of the United States,” passed 6th February, 1778, the delegates from NewYork in congress, were authorised to ratify the above articles, in behalf of this state.

The above articles of confederation continued in force until the 4th day of March, 1789, when the constitution of the United States took effect.]


We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perlect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution for the United States of America.


SECTION 1. 1. All legislative powers herein granted, shall be vested in a con- Legislative gress of the United States, which shall consist of a senate and house power of representatives.

SECTION 2. 1. The house of representatives shall be composed of members House of repchosen every second year by the people of the several states; and its members' the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for mosen. électors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.


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portioned according to pumbers.

Qualifica 2. No person shall be a representative who shall not have attainresentatives. ed to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of

the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among es to be ap- the several states which may be included within this union, accord

ing to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to

service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, threeActual enu. fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made ny ten years within three years after the first meeting of the congress of the United

States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manLimitation of ner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall representa" not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have

at least one representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, tion.dent of the state of New-Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three; Mas

sachusetts eight; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one ; Connecticut five; New-York six ; New-Jersey four; Pennsylvania eight; Delaware one; Maryland six; Virginia ten; North-Carolina five; South-Carolina five; and Georgia three.

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such

vacancies. Powers of the 5. The house of representatives shall choose their speaker and other

officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

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SECTION 3. Senators how 1. The senate of the United States shall be composed of two sena

tors from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years;

and each senator shall have one vote. The senato 2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of Ureo classes. the first election, they shall be divided, as equally as may be, into When vacate three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class, shall be va

cated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration

of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; Vacancies and if vacancies happen by resignation or otherwise, during the re

cess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

3. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for

which he shall be chosen. President of 4. The vice-president of the United States shall be president of the

senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

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5. The senate shall choose their other officers and also a president Ib. and other pro tempore, in the absence of the vice-president, or when he shall *** exercise the office of president of the United States.

6. The senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. The solo When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. impeachWhen the president of the United States is tried, the chief justice senute, &c. shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than Extent of to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any of- cases of infice of honor, trust, or profit, under the United states; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

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SECTION 4. 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for senators Elections for and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature representathereof; but the congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter regulated such regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators.

2. The congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and Meetings of such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.


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SECTION 5. 1. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and Each house qualifications, of its own members; and a majority of each shall con-election of its stitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn bers. from day to day, and may be authorised to compel the attendance of Quo absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide.

2. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish To determine its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two- &c. thirds, expel a member.

3. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from To keep and time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their nuls, dec. judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Neither house, during the session of congress, shall, without the Adjouryconsent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.


SECTION 6. ļ. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation Senators and for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasu- tives to be ry of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, Privileger,


paid, &c.

Dienbility to

felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to or returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.

hold offices.

Revenua bills.

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SECTION 7. 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives; but the senate may propose or concur with amend

ments as on other bills. The forms of 2. Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives

and the senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, twothirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all cases, the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it

shall not be a law. Ib. ou joint 3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of except for ad- the senate and house of representatives may be necessary, (except on

a question of adjournment,) shall be presented to the president of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the senate and house of representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.



Congress have power to lay taxes, &c.

The congress shall have power ;

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises, shall be uniform throughout the United States :

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States :

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes :

4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States :

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures :

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States :

7. To establish post-offices and post-roads :

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries :

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court: To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations :

10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water :

11. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use, shall be for a longer term than two years :

12. To provide and maintain a navy:

13. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces :

14. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions :

15. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by congress :

16. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased, by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings: and,

17. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

SECTION 9. 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states or certain per now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by prohibited the congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, 1808,


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