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natures in our Lord. The Kiss of Peace was then passed round can it be said that there was any thing in the authorized forms from the Celebrant by means of his ministers (the Deacon and for the celebration of the Holy Eucharist which could have Sub-deacon, or Epistoler and Gospeller), some private prayers originally given rise, or encouragement, to either practice. were said by the Celebrant, and afterwards the prayer of Humble

f The Reformed Liturgy of the Church of England. Access.

Here came in the Communion, first of the Celebrant, and then The general steps which were taken towards a reconstruction of the other Clergy and of the people'; and, with the exception of all the Offices used in Divine Service, and their translation of a Thanksgiving Prayer and a Post-Communion Collect, this into English, have been traced out in the Historical Introduction, substantially completed the Service.

pages xix-xxvi, and need not be repeated in treating parThere were, however, some subsequent ceremonies, such as the ticularly of the Liturgy. Suffice it to say, that the abstinence of ablution of the sacred vessels, and of the Celebrants' hands, which the Laity from Communion appeared so great and pressing an are left to traditional practice and individual devotion in our evil to the Reformers, that they added on an English Office for modern English rite, but which were provided for with minute the Communion of the Laity in both kinds, to the ancient Salisexactness in the ancient one. During these ceremonies the con- bury Liturgy, even before they had finished the preparation of gregation still remained, and after their conclusion were dismissed the Prayer Book ? by the Deacon saying, Benedicamus Domino, or, Ite, missa est, The general consideration of the Theology of the Sacraments according to the season.

had been committed by Henry VIII. to a Commission of Divines There is no reason to think that this mode of celebrating the in 1540, and the revision of the Services had also been underHoly Communion underwent any great changes from the time of taken about the same time. In 1546, shortly before his death, St. Osmund until 1549; and indeed it was probably very much “the King commanded ” Archbishop Cranmer “to pen a form for the same as had been used in the Church of England even before the the alteration of the Mass into a Communion 3.” On November time of St. Osmund. Many ceremonies were doubtless introduced 30th, 1547, the Prolocutor of the Lower House of Convocation during the Middle Ages, and some had probably been added by "exhibited, and caused to be read publicly, a form of a certain St. Osmund himself; but these ceremonies affected the rubrics ordinance, delivered by the Most Reverend the Archbishop of rather than the substance of the Liturgy, and the Ordinary and Canterbury, for the receiving of the body of our Lord under both Canon were otherwise in the same condition in the sixteenth kinds, viz. of bread and wine. To which he himself subscribed, century that they had been in the eleventh. It must, however, and some others, &c. 4 " The form thus approved of by Conbe remembered that numerous additions were made to the vari. vocation was ratified by both Houses of Parliament on December able parts of the Missal (p. 68), special Collects, Epistles, and 20th, 1547; and issued under a proclamation by the Crown', on Gospels, &c., being appointed for particular days and occasions ; March 8th, 1547-8. This proclamation ordered that “the most and it was in these additions that the Reformers found so much blessed Sacrament of the Body and Blood of our Saviour Christ which they regarded as inexpedient or superstitious. What the should from thenceforth be commonly delivered and ministered great French liturgical scholar, Gueranger, says respecting the unto all persons within our realm of England and Ireland, and MSS. of the Roman Liturgy was doubtless true, to some extent, other of our dominions, under both kinds, that is to say, of bread of the English, that they had come to be “ loaded with gross and and wine (except necessity otherwise require), lest every man even superstitious additions, consisting chiefly of apocryphal phantasying and devising a sundry way by himself, in the use of histories, unknown and even rejected in the early ages, but which this most blessed Sacrament of unity, there might arise any had been afterwards introduced into the Lessons and Anthems, unseemly and ungodly diversity.” and in votive Masses (which had become superstitiously nume

The “Order of Communion,” thus authorized (, begins with an rous), barbarous forms, and furtively introduced Benedictions." Exhortation, to be used on the Sunday or Holyday next before But these abuses were far more common in the southern countries the Administration. This Exhortation was reproduced in the of Europe than in England; and the most conspicuous inno- Liturgy of 1549, and is identical (except that the last paragraph vations connected with the celebration of the Holy Eucharist in is omitted) with that now standing first in our present Liturgy. our own Church were (1) the withdrawal of the Cup from the After this came the following rubric, which explains the use of Laity, and (2) the rare communion of the Laity under any cir- the Office :-" The time of the Communion shall be immediately cumstances except at the approach of death.

after that the Priest himself hath received the Sacrament, withIn respect to the first, it is sufficient to say, that although the out the varying of any other rite or ceremony in the Mass (until Eucharist appears to have been always sent to the sick under the other order shall be provided), but as heretofore usually the form of one element only, until 1549, the Laity were certainly Priest hath done with the Sacrament of the Body, to prepare, accustomed to partake of it in both kinds at church until the bless, and consecrate so much as will serve the people; so it shall twelfth century. Even so late as A.D. 1175, the Convocation of continue still after the same manner and form, save that he shall Canterbury forbade the introduction of the novel custom, and it is bless and consecrate the biggest chalice, or some fair and conprobable that it did not become common in England until its venient cup or cups full of wine with some water put unto it; adoption was ordered by the Council of Constance in 1415. and that day, not drink it up all himself, but taking one orly sup There is no recognition whatever of the administration in one or draught, leave the rest upon the altar covered, and turn to kind in the Liturgy itself, though in an Exhortation used before them that are disposed to be partakers of the Communion, and the Communion of the Laity it is distinctly referred to.

shall thus exhort them as followeth.” Then follows the ExhorThe second custom arose out of that inattention to the åvaroyla tation beginning, “ Dearly beloved in the Lord, ye that mind," of doctrine which so often leads men to error in practice. The &c., which replaced an older form, previously used in the same Holy Eucharist being both a Sacrifice and a Sacrament, theo place, when the holy Sacrament was administered in one kind logians of the Middle Ages were so intent upon the duty and only. After this Exhortation the Priest was directed to “pause necessity of the first that they overlooked the duty and necessity awhile, to see if any man will withdraw himself,” and then to say of the second ; and while the Mass was offered daily in most, if not in all, churches, and in some many times in the day, few ex- 2 Translations of the Epistles and Gospels of the Sarum Use had been cept the Clergy ever partook of it more than once or twice in the common for some time, and a great number of them exist at the end of year, considering that it was sufficient for them to be present

Primers of the period, as well as in separate volumes.

3 Strype's Memorials of Cranmer, i. 311. Ecc. Hist. Soc. while it was being offered.

4 Ibid. i. 37. But this too was an innovation that had found its way into 5 It will be remembered that Charlemagne substituted the Roman for the practice without finding any recognition in the Liturgy. Nor Gallican Liturgy by his own authority alone.

6 Original copies of this "Order of Communion" are extremely rare, there being only four or five known. One of these is in the Public Library,

Cambridge, one in Cosin's Library, and one in Routh's Library : both the The Communion of the people was preceded by an Exhortation, latter at Durham.

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the invitation, “Ye that do truly,” the Confession, the Absolution', the Comfortable words, and the Prayer of Humble Access. The Communion followed the latter Prayer, the Office being in these words from thence to the end :

* Then shall the Priest rise, the people still reverently kneeling, and the Priest shall deliver the Communion, first to the Ministers, if any be there present, that they may be ready to kelp the Priest, and after to the other. And when he doth delicer the Sacrament of the Body of Christ he shall say to every one these words following,

“The body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee, preserve thy body unto everlasting life.

" And the Priest delivering the Sacrament of the Blood, and giring etery one to drink once and no more, shall say,

“The blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was shed for thee, preserve thy soul to everlasting life.

"If there be a Deacon or other Priest, then shall he follow eith the chalice, and as the Priest ministereth the bread, so shall be for more expedition minister the wine, in form before critten.

* Then shall the Priest, turning him to the people, let the people depart with this blessing,

“The peace of God, which passeth all understanding, keep your hearts and minds in the knowledge and love of God, and in His Son Jesus Christ our Lord.

whole, but in each of them the whole body of our Saviour Jesu Christ.

Note, that if it doth so chance, that the wine hallowed and consecrate doth not suffice or be enough for them that do take the Communion, the Priest, after the first cup or chalice be emptied, may go again to the altar, and reverently, and devoutly prepare, and consecrate another, and so the third, or more, likewise beginning at these words, Simili modo postquam cæna. tum est, and ending at these words, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum, and without any levation or lifting up."

From March 8th, 1547-8, until June 9th, 1549, the authorized Liturgy of the Church of England consisted, therefore, of the ancient Salisbury Mass, with this “ Order of Communion” in English superadded when any of the laity wished to communicate. At the end of the year and a quarter the first complete Book of Common Prayer in English was taken into use, that is, on WhitSunday (June 9th), 1549; and it contained a Liturgy formed from the ancient Latin and this recent English Office. The substance of the Liturgy, so reconstructed and translated, is given in the Appendix to the Communion Office; and as the history of the Liturgy is henceforth part of that of the Prayer Book itself, which has been already given in the Historical Introduction, it is unnecessary to go further into it here. The various changes which ensued in 1552, 1559, and 1661, will be shown in the foot-notes.

It need only be added, to complete the account of the English Liturgy, that it has been the source from which the modern Scottish Church has drawn its Communion Office. In this the modern Church bas followed the ancient, for the Salisbury Missal, in a complete or a modified form, was used in Scotland in Mediæval times. The American Liturgy is also an adaptation of the English; and will, as well as the Scottish, be found in the Appendix to the Communion Office.

To the which the people shall answer,


"Note, that the Bread that shall be consecrated shall be such as heretofore hath been accustomed. And every of the said consecrated Breads shall be broken in two pieces, at the least, or snore by the discretion of the Minister, and so distributed. And men must not think less to be received in part, than in the


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Before the great Sacrament of the Christian Church was Of this also we hear in the Book of the Revelation, where, in actually instituted by our Blessed Lord, it was foretold and pre- His message to the Angel of the Church of Pergamos, the Lord figured by words and acts of His own, and by prophecies and says, “ To bim that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden material types of more ancient date. A due consideration of manna." [Rev. ii. 17.]4 But it had been heard of in a still these antecedents of the Holy Communion is a great help towards more remarkable way from the lips of the same Lord, in His a clear understanding of its true meaning and use in the Chris. discourse to the people after the miracle of the loaves and fishes. tian economy.

When our Lord had thus “filled them with bread in the wilder1. First of all is the Tree of Life in the garden of Eden. From ness,” the people, still unconvinced, asked Him for a sign, not the manner in which this is spoken of, it appears to have been a from earth, but from Heaven, and greater than this. Moses had tree bearing a kind of natural Sacrament, by partaking of which given them not only common bread, but even manna, bread as food the natural wear and tear of the physical body was so from Heaven," not man's, but “angel's food;" what could He do counteracted that its decay and death became impossible; a tree more than Moses, to convince them that He was greater than to which man might "put forth his hand and eat and live for Moses? Then our Lord directed their attention to His own fer.” (Gen. iii. 22.] Of this means of life we hear again in Person, as “the Bread of God which cometh down from Heaven the regenerated city of God, “ the New Jerusalem coming down and giveth life unto the world; ... the Bread of life ... the from God, out of Heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her Bread which cometh down from Heaven, that a man may eat husband;" for "in the midst of the street of it, and on either thereof and not die ... the living Bread which came down from side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve Heaveu : if any man eat of this Bread, he shall live for ever : and manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month; and the the Bread which I will give is My flesh, which I will give for the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.” [Rev. life of the world.” (John vi. 31. 51.] vi. 2.]' But we also hear of it froin our Lord Himself, who, 3. It is impossible not to associate the manna of the wilderabout the time of the institution of the Holy Eucharist, pro- ness with the "true Bread from Heaven,” the "hidden manna," elaimed Himself as the “ True Vine," and spoke of the Sacrament and that bread of which our Lord said, “ This is My Body;" which He originated as the “ Fruit of the Vine.” (Jolin xv. l. Matt. xxvi. 29.]

4 The manna was "a small round thing... like coriander seed, white; 2. The chosen people of God were fed for forty years, during and the taste of it was like wafers, made with honey. their penal and probationary wandering in the wilderness, with

thereof as the colour of bdellium.” (Exod. xvi. 14. 31. Numb. xi. 7.) Pious manna, a mysterious “bread from heaven,” to which they gave

writers have seen in the sweetness of the manna a type of that WORD which

is "sweeter than honey" to the mouth; in its suitableness to every man's the name it bore because of its mystery, “for they wist not what taste, of the Eucharist which is so to every man's faith; and in the sufficiency it was 3." And Moses said unto them, “This is the bread which of the quantity, however much more or less had been gathered than the the Lord hath given you to eat.” [Exod. xvi. 15.]

assigned measure, a type of the fulness of the Gift of Christ in every par. ticle of the consecrated element. There seems to be a curious traditional

memorial of the manna, and of the Passover, in Good Friday buns, which 1 As Confession had already been made and Absolution given, in Latin, are flavoured with coriander seed. They probably represented the ancient this repetition of both seems very seriously open to objection, and cannot Jewish form of Passover cakes, Christianized by the mark of the Cross; be satisfactorily explained.

but they also represent almost exactly the loaf out of which the portions of ? Cl. Notes on Psalm i.

3 See margin of the passage.

bread to be consecrated are taken in the Liturgies of the Eastern Church.

and the colour

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with all of which is connected the idea of nourishment and life. rite upon the Jewish. It is a more rational, as well as a more Our Lord's words respecting this Bread from Heaven drove away reverent, answer to the question, Whence was the Holy Eucharist many of His followers, who were impatient of a mystery which derived ? to reply that it was absolutely originated by our they could not understand; but when He said to the Apostles, Blessed Lord, and not founded on any previous ordinance or “Will ye also go away ?” the reply was, “Lord, to whom shall custom. As He took our human nature into His Divine Nature we go? Thou hast the words of eternal life.” They continued by an originative act of Creation, although He was pleased to with Him, notwithstanding this trial of their faith, and their follow up the Creative act by the natural process of its develop perseverance was rewarded by the interpretative acts and words ment from the substance of His Mother; so an originative act of our Lord when He instituted the Holy Communion, and preceded, and stood above, all associations between the Eucharist showed them the inner meaning of the miracle of the loaves and and earthly rites or earthly substances. His Body and His of His mysterious words respecting Himself, “ For My flesh is Blood first existed, and then were associated with bread and meat indeed, and My blood is drink indeed. He that eateth wine; the former taking the latter up into themselves by His My flesh, and drinketh My blood, dwelleth in Me, and I in him.” Divine power. It is true that our Lord did use the words of [John vi. 55, 56.] “Take, eat; this is My body .... Drink ye David, at the most solemn epoch of His sufferings; that He all of it; for this is My blood.” (Matt. xxvi. 27, 28.]

associated His Prayer with ancient formularies of the older dis. These antecedent types and words are the most prominent of a pensation; and that He did, in like manner, associate the Holy class which need not be referred to in further detail, since the Eucharist with the Temple rite of the Mincha offering of bread two referred to are sufficient to show that a preparation was and wine, with the Sabbath Eve Synagogue Memorial of the being made for the right understanding of that great Sacrament Exodus, and with the domestic usages of the Passover. But the which our Lord instituted to be the means of spiritual life to the association in each case was that of the antitype with the type. world. The “bread and wine” of Melchizedek's offering, the He did not use the words of the Psalms as those of David, but “Mincha" of the Temple Service, the “bread ” and “mingled David used them propbetically as the words of Christ. Those wine ” of Wisdom's “table” in the book of Proverbs, the "pure Jewish prayers which bore some resemblance to the Lord's offering” of the prophet Malachi, are all anticipative shadows of Prayer, were typical foreshadowings of that Divine formulary in that which was to be revealed in the Kingdom of Christ : and which all prayer was to be gathered into one ever-prevailing many other such shadows cast their forms across the page of intercession ; and, finally, the Eucharist was not evolved out of Holy Scripture, leading up to Him and His work, in whom and former rites, but fulfilled them, and absorbed them. The Mincha in which was to be the fulfilment of all types and figurative became the "pure offering,” the Sabbath Eve service of the representations,

Synagogue merged in the Lord's Day Eucharist, and the

domestic rites of the Passover passed into the Sacrament of § The Holy Communion as a Sacrament.

His love, of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is Thus, then, we are led up to the consideration of the rite named. instituted by our Lord as a new tree of life, a manna for the new Thus then we are led to look primarily not at the outward chosen people, a Heavenly food, the Sacrament or Mystery of the signs of the Holy Eucharist, but at that which they signified. Body and Blood of Christ.

Bread and wine, the common food and common drink, not the Strange as it appeared to those who heard the truth for the exceptional luxuries of a Jewish meal, were indeed used by our first time, there must have been some absolute necessity for Lord as the media of His great gift; but it is to the gift itself making the Body and Blood of Christ a healing food. What th He draws our attention, saying, not “This Bread,” but “ This this necessity was the Holy Spirit has not yet revealed to us; is My Body,”... not " This Wine,” but This is My Blvod.” He but we seem to be tracing out the general outline of it, when takes them up into a higher nature; and when so consecrated, we acknowledge that only our Lord's perfect Human Nature although their original nature is not annihilated, it passes out of could remedy the imperfections of that human nature which is spiritual cognizance, and the eye of faith sees, or desires to see, still subject to the influences of evil, first brought to bear upon it it no more. by the Fall. Wherefore,” says the Exhortation which follows Much trouble would have been spared to the Church if there the Prayer for the Church Militant, “it is our duty to render had been less endeavour to define on the one hand what our must humble and hearty thanks to Almighty God, our heavenly Lord's words mean, and, on the other hand, what they do not Father, for that He hath given His Son, our Saviour Jesus mean. Up to a certain point we can define; beyond a certain Christ, not only to die for us, but also to be our spiritual food point we must be content to leave definition and accept mystery. and sustenance in that holy Sacrament.” It is impossible to We can say that the elements before consecration are bread and explain why our Lord's death was not sufficient for the full pros. wine, and we can also say that they are bread and wine after pective accomplishment of His work; why it was still necessary consecration: we can say that the bread and wine are not the for Him to be the spiritual food and sustenance of His people Body and Blood of Christ before consecration, and we can also through all the ages that were afterwards coming upon the say that they are the Body and Blood of Christ after consecration. world; why He should not build up each soul into the living But how these apparently contradictory facts are to be recon. Temple without the intervention of any sacramental medium ciled, wbat is the nature of the change that occurs in the bread between the soul and His Almighty power. And since it is im- and wine, in what manner that change is effected, how far that possible to give a reason for this, there is the more cause to change extends beyond the use of the Sacrament—these are acknowledge humbly that God does nothing without necessity, questions that no one can answer but God. When Nicodemus and to bow our intellect with reverence before the inscrutable said, “ How can these things be ?” and the people at Capernaum, fact which lies open before it in Christ's words, “My flesh is meat “ How can this Man give us His flesh to eat?” our Lord did not indeed, and My blood is drink indeed.” “ This is My body, this explain, but reiterated, the truths which had excited the wonder is My blood.”

and doubt of the questioners. In doing so He doubtless taught Such a reverent awe for this great fact will not be at all the lesson, that when God speaks in words of mystery He does so diminished by inquiry as to the particular circumstances under with a purpose; and that it is our duty to believe exactly what which the Holy Eucharist was instituted, if we are careful not to He tells us, even though we cannot understand all that His give ourselves a false impression of those circumstances by yield- words mean. There can never be any real antagonism between ing to the seductive bias of mere “local colouring.” For how. one truth and another, nor can there be any real conflict between ever true it may be that the rite which our Lord instituted was His gift of Faith and His gift of Intellect. associated with some previous custom of the temple, the synagogue, or the household, yet this truth is only part of the whole

§ The Holy Communion as a Sacrifice. truth; and it would be a perversion of a truth to say that this In the prophecy of Malachi to which previous reference has association amounted to the actual foundation of the Christian been made, the Holy Ghost gave the following prediction respect

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ing Gospel times :—“From the rising of the sun, even unto the truth here expressed is illustrated by the names which were given going down of the same, My Name shall be great among the to the Holy Communion in the early Church : they were “OblaGentiles; and in every place incense shall be offered unto My tion, Sacrifice, Eucharist, Sacrifice of Thanksgiving, Sacrifice of Name, and A PURE OFFERING: for My Name shall be great Praise, reasonable and unbloody Sacrifice, Sacrifice of our Mediaamong the heathen, saith the Lord of hosts.” (Mal. i. 11.] The tor, Sacrifice of the Altar, Sacrifice of our Ransom, Sacrifice of words translated “pure offering ” are " Mincha” in the Hebrew, the Body and Blood of Christ. It would be infinite to note all the Puola katapá in the Septuagint, and oblatio mundain the places and authors where and by whom it is thus called.” [Ibid.] Vulgate. The whole text “was once, and that in the oldest and In all these terms it will be seen that the most prominent idea of purest time of the Church, a text of eminent note, and familiarly the Eucharist was not that of Communion, but of Oblation or known to every Christian, being alleged by their pastors and bloodless Sacrifice. And they were terms advisedly taken into teachers as an express and undoubted prophecy of the Christian use by holy men and the Church at large, 'at a time when saerifice, or solemn worship in the Eucharist, taught by our sacrifices were still offered beyond the pale of the Church. blessed Saviour unto His disciples, to be observed of all that This habitual dwelling upon the Sacrificial aspect of the shall believe in His Name; and this so generally and grantedly, | Eucharist was founded upon the acts and words of our Lord as could never have been, at least so early, unless they had at His Institution of the Sacrament. These are narrated by learned thus to apply it by tradition from the Apostles.” [Mede, the three former Evangelists and by St. Paul in the following Christian Sacrif. 355.] The deep and habitual conviction of the

passages :

Matt. xxvi. 26-28.

Mark xiv. 22—24.
And as they were eating, And as they did eat, Jesus
Jesus took bread,

took brend, and blessed it,

and blessed, and brake it,

and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and gave to them, and said,

and said, Take, eat;

Take, eat; This is My Body.

This is My Body

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This is My Body which is given
for you : this do in remem-
brance of Me, Likewise

and said,
Take, eat;
This is My Body which is
broken for you: this do in re-
membrance of Me. After the
same manner

He took the cup when He had

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and gave thanks

and when He had given thanks and gave it to them,

He gave it to them; . saying,

and He said unto them, Drink ge all of it; for this is My Blood of the New This is My Blood of the New Testament, which is shed for Testament, which is shed for tany,

many. for the remission of sins.

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In these narratives certain definite acts and words of our Lord in St. Chrysostom, when he writes, “ See how He weans and draws are clearly recorded. (1) He took bread : (2) He blessed it, or them from Jewish rites; 'For,' says He, 'as ye offered that" "gare thanks” over it: (3) He brake it : (4) He gave it to those (i. e. the Passover, ékeivo (Roleite) “.in remembrance of the present: (5) He said that what He so gave them to eat was His miraculous deliverance from Egypt, so offer "" (troleite) “ this Body: (6) He took the cup: (7) He gave thanks over it also : in remembrance of Me: that blood was shed for preservation of (6) He gave it to those present: (9) He called that which He so the first-born, this for the remission of the sins of the whole gave them to drink His Blood: (10) He directed them to do as world.'” (Chrys. Matt. xxvi. Ixxxii.] The word is constantly He had done for a memorial of Him.

translated “offer” and “sacrifice," and by equivalent terms in In the words recorded there are several terms of a special cha- the English version of the Old Testament, and it clearly has that racter. (1) When our Lord blessed [ eŭroyhoas) and gave thanks meaning in Luke ii. 27. It would therefore be watering down (etxapiothoas), He did so in no ordinary sense, as in the bene- the sense of it in this place if any less meaning were to be diction of food before a meal, or the thanksgiving for it afterwards. assigned to it as all the meaning that it contained. (3) The He blessed the elements of bread and wine with the fulness of a expression “in remembrance of Me” [eis Thr dunn åvduvnour] is Divine benediction, so that His eucharistization of them caused also of a sacrificial character, meaning, in conjunction with the them to possess properties which they did not previously possess ; preceding, “ Offer this as a Memorial of Me before the Father." especially, to become spiritual entities, His Body and His Blood 1. So the word uinubo uvov is used in Leviticus ii. 2. 9, “ the priest (2) In commanding His Apostles to “do” [TOLEîte] “this,” our shall burn the memorial of it upon the altar,” and avduvnous Lord was using a well-known expression significant of the act of itself in Numbers x. 10 and Leviticus xxiv. 7, “and when 80 Sacrifice; and one which St. Paul (who uses it twice of the applied,” says Mr. Keble, it “means always" a portion of someluostitution) uses also of the Passover, when he says of Moses, thing offered to Almighty God, to remind Him of the worshipthat “through faith he kept [&tolnot] the Passover and sprink per himself, or of some other person or object in whom the lng of blood." The use of the word for both is found afterwards worshipper takes an interest; or of His own loving-kindness,

shown by mercies past or gracious promises for the future.”

“This is the proper drift of the word remembrance in our Lord's The same word is used in John vi. 11, where our Lord "eucharistized " institution of the Sacrament. “Do this;' He seems to say, the five loaves before putting them into the hands of His disciples with the new capacity of feeding five thousand men. The whole action of this miracle has an Eucharistic character. (See note at p. 95, on the Gospel for ? See Carter on the Priesthood, p. 84, note. Cr. Lev. ix. 7, in LXX. Isa Mid-Lest Sunday.)

xix. 21. 1 Kings xi. 33.



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Bless, break, distribute, receive this Bread; bless, distribute, Thine own of Thine own. . . . . Moreover we offer unto Thee drink of this Cup; say over the two respectively, This is My this reasonable and unbloody Sacrifice: and beseech Thee and Body, This is My Blood, in order to that Memorial Sacrifice pray and supplicate; send down Thy Holy Ghost upon us, and which properly belongs to Me; the Memorial which My servants upon these proposed gifts. are continually to make of Me, among one another, and before Sacramentary of St. Gregory.- Wherefore, O Lord, we Thy My Fatlier !.” This terin also is used twice in St. Paul's account servants, and also Thy holy people, having in remembrance Thy of the institution. (4) Lastly, St. Paul uses an expression which Son Jesus Christ our Lord, as well His blessed Passion, as also must be interpreted iu a similar manner, when he says, “yo do His Resurrection from the lower parts of the earth [ab luferis), shew” (katayyénete] “the Lord's death.” That the whole and His glorious Ascension into Heaven : offer unto Thino carly Church thus understood our Lord's words, applying thein cxcellent Majesty of Thine own donations and gifts which Thou to the offering of the Holy Eucharist by His Ministers, and not hast given a pure offering (hostiam], an holy offering, an imonly to His one oblation of Himself, is shown by the words of inaculate offering, the holy Bread of eternal life, and the Cup of the Fathers, by decrees of Councils, and more than all by the everlasting salvation. constant witness of the ancient Liturgies. Thus, St. Cyprian Tho last of these is the Prayer of Oblation which was used by says, “ For if Jesus Christ, our Lord and God, is Himself the the Church of England (in common with the rest of the Western great High Priest of God the Father, and first offered Himself a Church) before the translation of her offices into English. In Sacrifice to the Father, and commanded this to be done in re- the Prayer Book of 1549, the Prayer was substantially retained, membrance of Himself, surely that priest truly acts in Christ's the following words succeeding the words of Institution :stead, who imitates that which Christy did ; and he then offers a English Communion Office of 1549.—Whereforc, O Lord and true and full Sacrifice in the Church to God the Father, when he heavenly Father, according to the Institution of Thy dearly begins to offer it according as be sees Christ Himself offered it.” beloved Son, our Saviour Jesu Christ, we Thy humble servants [Cypr. Ep. Ixiü. 11.] In the fifth Canon of the Nicene Council do celebrate and make here before Thy Divine Majesty, with these an injunction is given respecting the appeasing of disputes in Thy holy gifts, the memorial which Thy Son hath willed us to Lent that the Gift may be offered pure to God.” In the make: having in remembrance His blessed Passion, mighty eleventh Canon one kind of penitents are directed to join in the Resurrection, and glorious Ascension, rendering unto Thce most prayers “without offering :” and in the eighteenth those are hearty thanks for the innumerable benefits procured unto us by spoken of “who offer the Body of Christ ?." How distinctly the the same; entirely desiring Thy fatherly goodness mercifully to ancient Church spoke on the subject, in its solemn public lan. accept this our Sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving; most humbly guage before God, may be seen by the following Prayers of Obla- beseeching Thee to grant, that by the merits and death of Thy tion taken from some of its Liturgies :

Son Jesus Christ .... (as in the present Office]. Liturgy of St. James.- We therefore also, sinners, remember. When the Canon was separated into three parts in 1552, these ing His life-giving Passion, His salutary Cross, His Death and words of oblution were placed after the Communion and the Resurrection from the dead on the third day, His Ascension into Lord's Prayer. In the Scottish Office of 1637, a return was Heaven, aud Session on the right hand of Thee His God and made to the Liturgy of 1519; and in the revision of 1661, Bishop Father, and His glorious and terrible coming again, when He Çosin proposed to restore this form rather than that of 1552, as shall come with glory to judge the quick and the dead, and to Queen Elizabeth and Lord Burleigh had also wished. But render to every man according to his works, offer to Thee, O Bishop Cosin's wishes were overruled, probably because it was Lord, this tremendous and unbloody Sacrifice, beseeching Theo considered that the times were too dangerous to admit of any that Thou wouldst not deal with us after our sins, nor reward us conspicuous change in the Communion Service. according to our iniquities; but according to Thy gentleness and Although, however, the change in the position of the words of ineffable love, passing by and blotting out the handwriting that Oblation has tended to obscure the meaning of the Service, it is against us, Thy suppliants, wouldst grant us Thy heavenly cannot for a moment be supposed that the revisers of our Liturgy and eternal gifts, which eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither in 1552 wero so exceedingly and profanely presumptuous as to hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive the things wish to suppress the doctrine of the Eucharistic Sacrifice. There which Thou, O God, hast prepared for them that love Thee. were probably some unfortunate temporary reasons (such as the Liturgy of St. Clement.—Wherefore having in remembrance unscrupulous tyranny of ignorant and biassed rulers), which we offer to Thee our King and our God, according to this

influenced them to make such a change as would save the institution, this bread and this cup; giving thanks to Thee

doctrine, while it left the statement of it more open than before : through Him, that Thou hast thought us worthy to stand before and they probably thought it better to consult expediency to a Thee, and to sacrifice unto Thee.

certain extent, than to run the risk of such an interference Liturgy of St. Mark.--[Before Consecration] .... Our Lord

as would bave taken the Prayer Book out of the hands of the and God and Saviour Jesus Christ, by Whom, rendering thanks

Church, and moulded it to the meagre faith of Calvinistic Purito Thee with Himself and the Holy Ghost, we offer to Thee this

tans. After the alteration was made, some of our best and reasonable and unbloody Sacrifice, which all nations offer to Thee,

holiest Divines, such as Andrewes and Overall, were accustomed O Lord, from the rising of the sun unto the going down of the to say the "tirst Thanksgiving," or Prayer of Oblation, before same; from the north and from the south; for Thy name is administering the elements, and the second, “ Almighty and great among the Gentiles, and in every place incense is offered to everliving God,” after the Lord's Prayer, but this practice has Thy name, and a pure offering. [After words of Institution :] O been discontinued since the last Revision, though its revival is Almighty Lord and Master, King of Heuven, we announcing much to be desired. the death of Thine only begotten Son our Lord and God and

From the very nature of the Holy Eucharist it is, however, imSaviour Jesus Christ .... O Lord our God, we have set before possible for any such change as that which was thus made to vitiate Thee Thine own of Thine own gifts.

its sacrificial character. The Act of Consecration is in itself an Liturgy of St. Chrysostom.-We therefore, remembering this

act of Sacrifice, whether or not it is accompanied by express salutary precept, and all that happened on our behalf, the

words of oblation. So long therefore as properly ordained Priests Cross, the Tomb, the Resurrection on the third day, the Ascen- use the proper formula of consecration, there must necessarily be siou into heaven, thc Session on the right hand, the second and

an offering of the Holy Eucharist to God; althongh such a glorious coming again, in behalf of all, and for all, we offer Thee minimum of form is, it is true, quite discordant with the spirit

and letter of Apostolic Liturgies. The whole service is also a I Euch. Ador, p. 68.

virtual memorial before God, even if there were not in any part · Routh's Script. Eccl. i. 373. 377. 381.

of it specific words on the subject. 3 It must be remembered that the Oriental Church believes the consecration to be incomplete without an Invocation of the Holy Ghost, as well as

But the Prayer of Oblation yet remains in our Liturgy, though the words of Institution.

displaced from its ancient position, and said after Communion;

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