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of an eminently shining life, who will be a great ornament to the Episcopal order. Dr. Tennison, Minister of St. Martin's. He is a rare man, and despises wealth, and has done more against Popery than any man whatever. Dr. Stillingfleet, Dean of St. Paul's. He is the learnedest man of the age, in all respects, and a man of great prudence and moderation. Dr. Sharp, Dean of Norwich: One of the best preachers in England, and a very moderate man. Dr. Sherlock, Master of the Temple. He is the best and politest writer we have, but he has been very sour against the Dissenters, yet no man has writ with more strength against the Papists. Dr. Ayrshott, Dean of Windsor. He is a worthy man, and was one of the first that began to appear against Popery. He married the Earl of Westmorland's sister. Mr. Wake, of Gray's Inn. He is the wonderfullest young man in the world, and the most popular Divine now in England, and it is an amazing thing to see with what force he has writ against Popery. Dr. Fowler. A very moderate man, that has been much prosecuted by the Papists. He was the main instrument in engaging the Clergy to refuse to read the declaration. Dr. Horneck, a high German of the palatinate. A very good and pious preacher, and a very popular man.
His Highness may consider if it may not be fit for him to refuse to see either the Bishops of Durham, or of St. David's and Oxford; for they, deserving to be proceeded against, it may be a previous part of their punishment to receive such a mortification.
Our concluding extract will be taken from the Diary.
Monsieur Campricht, dining here, told me of a Doctor who undertakes to get gold out of the sand of the sea. He is of Spire; his name is Doctor Becker. The first experiment was made before the Pensioner at Haarlem, and some other of the States; then they made a report of it, and they think it feasible, and have agreed to give him 50,000 crowns, and two in the hundred of all he makes; he undertakes that the profit shall be a hundred in a hundred; next week the experiment is to be made at the house for casting of cannon. The States that saw the experiment are sworn to secrecy. In April he proposed this. Mr. Rockwood thinks he is a cheat: he hath had thoughts of going into England; he is as poor as other chymists use to be.
The volumes have been edited with care and an intimate acquaintance with the passages and persons of the period embraced.
ART. VIII. Days at the Factories; or, the Manufacturing Industry of Great Britain described, and illustrated by numerous engravings of Machines and Processes. Series 1. By GEORGE DODD. London: Knight and Co.
THE greater number of the articles contained in this volume appeared in the "Penny Magazine;" but so general has been the wish for their publication in a separate form, Mr. Dodd inform us, that, after having been carefully revised, they are now given in a compact shape.
He also states that the original papers have been extensively used in the higher classes of schools; amongst others, in the Engineering class of King's College.
The author's design has been "to convey some idea of the general character of a few of our London manufactures, in the form of visits to certain specified establishments, the general arrangement and internal economy of which are described, as a means of illustrating more distinctly the manufacturing details. The departments of manufacture selected are such as, in most cases, pertain to London rather than to the country, and are conducted on a scale sufficiently large to involve something like factory arrangements. The general character of the processes is sketched, in a form which does not aim at the completeness of a cyclopædia for practical treatise, but which, it is hoped, will convey information to those who, although not engaged in these manufactures, would like to know by whom, and from whence, and in what manner the familiarly known commodities of life are produced."
Such is a good general account of Mr. Dodd's design, and also of the contents of his amply stored volume, which will not only be acceptable on the part of young persons, but of all who wish to acquire highly interesting and useful notions concerning those articles and means that daily minister to their necessities, their comforts, and their luxuries.
The book is exceedingly well done. Remarkable simplicity and plainness characterize the descriptions and illustrations; the style is neat and calculated to arrest the attention of the general reader, even were the subjects of much less importance than they are. Indeed, without ever losing sight of the immediate topic, Mr. Dodd has the acquirements and the knack for setting off his "Days" with a picturesque effect that is particularly attractive and entertaining; so that both as respects manner and matter the series of magazine articles which he has produced are deserving of being reprinted in a connected and compact shape; for they will be re-read with a renewed satisfaction and sense of benefit.
The subject of the volume taken as a whole, is one of far larger capability and interest than may at first thoughts be conceived.. It is really rich in the way of suggestiveness as well as of curious facts; opening up at every step and detail things that not only directly bear upon the social condition of the community,-of the poor as well as the wealthy, but that gratify the mind as studies in the most acceptable and profitable manner,-viz., by setting it upon trains of thought that have no limit, and that will always be recurred to with positive advantage to the person who pursues the contemplation, and, very probably, according to a reflex influence and principle, to society.
The perusal of several of the papers, and especially of that which is introductory to the entire series, has been the means both of sug
gesting and of confirming ideas which we shall indicate under these heads:-first, as Mr. Dodd has well put it, the bulk of the inhabitants of a great city, such as London, have very indistinct notions of the means whereby the necessaries, the comforts, or the luxuries of life are furnished; for gold, being the medium through which every exchangeable thing is obtained, acts as a barrier between the producer and the consumer. Secondly, the facts and details of the book not only show and intimate that the trades and occupations that minister to necessity, comfort, and luxury, are multitudinous, but that they are endlessly ramified, directed, and combined. Mr. Dodd hints that, were one to consult the Directory, with a view to ascertain the number of trades and occupations which are pursued in London, probably it would be found that they amount to something like thirteen or fourteen hundred. Then how inextricably and always generatively must these on examination be discovered to reciprocate with one another, to have their buttresses, their feelers, their helps or drawbacks in respect of civilization and morality! And thirdly, how struck must the multitudes of "London" be on a perusal of the volume before us, not to speak of strangers making a brief sojourn in the capital, to find that some of the richest establishments, the greatest enterprises, the most influential factories, are buried as it were in the lanes and alleys of the huge Babylon, situated in what may be deemed the most unlikely localities whether of town or suburb, and are daily passed by tens of thousands without a thought of what is transacting and going on within the very sound of the pedestrian's footfall.
We must give an abstract of parts of Mr. Dodd's very instructive introductory chapter, before citing, not only as illustrations of some of the ideas we have thrown out, but as specimens of the author's matter and manner, a few of his paragraphs.
It could not be looked for, that notices of each of the thirteen or fourteen hundred trades and occupations were to be given. Even supposing this might have been done in a volume of no larger dimensions than the one before us, the result would not have been half so satisfying, not merely in the way of attractiveness but of real value. Mr. Dodd's course has been that of illustrative selection and classification, although without the pretension that his instances and arrangement afford other than an approximate aid in the shape of a guide, or that he has glanced at more than some one principal example in each of the departments fixed upon.
His classification goes upon the principle that productive industry may, for the purpose in hand, be regarded under certain comprehen sive heads, viz., according as the branch contributes "to man's comfort in relation to food and health-clothing and personal ornament -dwelling and furniture-instruction and amusement-means of transit, and means of producing. We stop not to cavil with the arrangement and grouping; neither is it necessary to waste time in
order to show that many branches of productive industry minister to sundry kinds of our needs and pleasures. Of course, it is relative to the branches that are carried on principally in London that our author concerns himself; and these again, in respect of their involving arrangements of great magnitude, the investment of capital, and a nice division of labour, as opposed to, or compared with, small establishments, where manual skill prevails,-the former being regarded as factories, the latter as mere handicraft. At the same time it is obvious, that here again there must be numerous crossings and encroachments, the artizan's labours often partaking of, and calling in, the agencies of factories; and these again combining and dividing with manual and limited operations.
Beginning with the factories that minister in respect of food, it very soon becomes manifest that Mr. Dodd's Days are far more largely occupied with articles that fall under the denomination of liquids than of solids. London can have very little to do with the production of animal food; and even with regard to that which is of a vegetable nature, it is not remarkable; first, because many articles, such as sugar in the state in which it is most extensively used, are not manufactured at all in England; and secondly, because most of the other edibles and seasonings, are either chiefly prepared in the provinces, or are, as in the case of bread, carried on in limited establishments, and not upon a factory scale.
With regard to clothing and personal ornament-whether the article is formed from silk, cotton, linen, or woollen, the metroplis depends chiefly for the fabrics of which these are the material, on the country districts. To be sure London is celebrated for its silken webs; but the warp and the weft are prepared in mills elsewhere; while the humble hand-loom weaver of Spitalfields, "works it up in his own poverty-stricken apartment, which often contains his loom, his bed, his kitchen, his family, and his birds and flowers, (for the genuine Spitalfields weaver is a connoisseur in birds and flowers under all his trials and difficulties)."
But although limited be the amount of woven fabrics which are produced in London factories, tens of thousands are there who work up the materials into garments. Still this is not done in coat-factories or dress-factories, and mostly by means of the tiny needle and the pliant thread which come from distant parts of the country. In the host of shoe departments, however, the metropolis is eminent, not because of factories in which these articles of clothing are made, but for its tanneries and great establishments where the leather is prepared; and accordingly one of our author's days is devoted to a leather factory. In respect of hats, whether made from wool or fur, London is distinguished, and this on account of every operation that takes place, from the importation of the raw material to the perfecting of the head's covering. There is, consequently, a Day at a hat
factory. Soap and blacking concern the person and the dress, and are manufactured largely in London therefore Mr. Dodd visited the principal seats for the production of these luxuries, a Day at "Day and Martin's" being one of his very best and most entertaining
Dwellings and furniture, it must at once be evident, upplya variety of subjects which properly fall within our author's instances. Instruction and amusement are fertile of branches for which the "great metropolis" is famous. Think of it for its manufactures of books. Printing and book-binding could not but be opulent of wonders in Mr. Dodd's scheme and estimation. Under the other head a Piano-forte Factory figures. Even for the entertainment of children by means of toys a good deal may be said; for these are sold so very extensively as to employ many persons. But then such articles are not produced in vast establishments; being made chiefly in the east end by poor people and whole families in their separate dwellings.
Means of Transit is a division that is affluent of instances and suggestions. But we must not longer tarry among generalities, merely further stating before entering upon the business of extracts that Mr. Dodd's Days amounted to twenty-two; the number of trades which involve large metropolitan factory arrangements, in the sense of the term as used by him, being greatly limited beyond what a looser application of it would necessarily pre-suppose.
We have already heard that London is far more remarkable on account of its factories for the production of liquids than of edibles; nor can we do better both as respects justice to the author and the curiosity of our readers than direct attention to the first Day, viz., that which has "a Brewery" for its subject.
It is Mr. Dodd's practice to begin the day with a descriptive sketch that serves as a picture-guide of a lively spirit, to the particular "lion" to be visited. He starts in the following fashion :
Those dwellers in and visitors to the "Great Metropolis" who cross Southwark Bridge from the city to the Borough, can scarcely have failed to observe the array of tall chimneys which meets the eye on either side of the southern extremity; each one serving as a kind of beacon or guidepost to some large manufacturing establishment beneath-here a brewery, there a saw-mill, farther on a hat factory, a distillery, a vinegar factory, and numerous others. Indeed, Southwark is as distinguishable at a distance for its numerous tall chimneys and the clouds of smoke emitted by them, as London is for its thickly-congregated church-spires. Let the reader when next on the bridge, single out from among these chimneys one more bulky though not more lofty than the rest; and this will point out the spot where one of those gigantic establishments-a London brewery, is situated; establishments which, whether we regard the extent of the buildings comprising them, the amount of capital invested by which they are sustained,