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and attractive fare is provided for them; and when we add that facts and opinions are brought together from all quarters, and methodically dealt with in a clear and vivid style, which will carry them on without much weariness through the perusal of the book, we have said all that we need now say in its favour. It was not easy, perhaps, to avoid repetition in such a treatise, and some vagueness of disquisition was unavoidable, where a solid basis of well-observed facts has not yet been laid, and where conjectures must often do duty for well-grounded inferences. But how few books would be written if men, forbearing to enunciate hypotheses, were to wait patiently until they had attained to certain principles ! The translator seems to have done his work well.

Selections from the Writings of Berkeley; with Notes and

Introduction, by ALEXANDER CAMPBELL FRASER, LL.D.

Clarendon Press Series. MACMILLAN & Co., 1875. Both those who have, and those who have not, read Bishop Berkeley's philosophical writings, will thank the editor of this volume for the admirable selections which he has made from them, as well as for the introduction and copious notes with which he has enriched it. It is to be hoped that it may be the means of introducing many persons to the study of Berkeley's works. His easy, elegant, and singularly lucid style, affords an excellent model for imitation by those who desire to express deep thoughts on abstruse subjects in chaste and graceful language, while his philosophical doctrines cannot fail to be instructive for generations to come. It is hardly necessary to add that the editor has done his work well. We strongly recommend the volume, which is convenient in size, easy to handle, does not require cutting, and is printed in good type.

PART 111.-PSYCHOLOGICAL RETROSPECT,

1. Insanity and Hospitals for the Insane, Public and Private,

in Ireland, in 1878. The Irish Blue-book for 1873—the twenty-third Report of the Inspectors and Commissioners of Control of Irish Asylums for the Insane-forms the first of what bids fair to be a much improved series of these interesting annual records. The improvement consists in the more systematic arrangement of the information regarding each of the twenty-two district Asylums, as well as the Central Asylum for

Criminal Lunatics at Dundrum near Dublin. The history and present condition of each of the twenty-three public institutions is given, with commendable fulness, and we have no doubt that future reports-when the Inspectors get accustomed to the new style—will contain information as complete as could be wished for,

If all three “ blue-books" in connexion with the insane in these kingdoms could appear as nearly as possible at the same time, it would be most desirable, so that our readers might have a resumé of the state of insanity in the whole length of the United Kingdom at once. Owing, however, to the lateness of issue of the report before us, it is only now we are able to give the total number of those who, at the end of 1873, were registered as a persons of unsound mind,” and were resident in public institutions or private asylums in Great Britain and Ireland—namely, 72,496. The total for the three kingdoms at the end of 1872, was 70,054. Their distribution each year was as follows:

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These numbers do not include those found insane by inquisition, nor the private single patients nor "out-door paupers" enumerated by the English Commissioners; nor those resident in private dwellings, although “under official cognizance" of the Scotch board ; nor the “ Insane at large” enumerated by the Irish Inspectors. It is necessary to exclude all these from the respective totals, in order to institute a fair comparison between the three countries, for each board has special facilities for registering certain classes not taken notice of by the others. For example, the Irish board is enabled to give a very complete list of all the insane at large," dividing them among three different grades of society, the upper classes yielding 117, the middle 2,046, and the lower 4,818, all enumerated by the Irish County Police in their respective districts—men trained in a special manner for the collection of statistics, at the compilation of which they are kept busy when not employed in the detection of crime or the suppression of Fenianism. There is no force of corresponding character or proportions in either of the other two countries. If, for instance, the English County Police had a similar duty to perform, we would doubtless hear of more than 6,839 insane poor residing with relatives or friends in the whole of England and Wales. The incompleteness of such an enumeration will be apparent by placing it alongside the similar one for Ireland, namely, 4,818, the proportion between the estimated general population of the two countries at the end of 1873 having been about 231 to 54.

The distribution of the "registered insane" in Ireland, at the period referred to, was as follows :In the 22 District Asylums

7,347
In Dundrum " Criminal Asylum”

160
Supported by Government in the Mixed
Institution near Lucan

25

-7,532
In 18 Private Asylums

314
In 4 Mixed Institutions (corresponding to
the Registered Hospitals of England)- 350

664

Total in the 45 Public, Private, and Mixed

Asylums
In Union Workbouses

8,176 3,130

Gross Total

11,326

The Inspectors are of opinion that insanity is certainly not on the increase in Ireland at present, but they seem to anticipate a gradual addition to the numbers in asylums owing to the increase in drunkenness, which in their view does not primarily cause genuine insanity. They throw out a hint that cases in which the disease of the brain has not gone so far as to affect the mind, are mistaken for cases of insanity among habitual drunkards. But whatever doubt there may be as to the vice referred to producing insanity in the individual himself, there can be none, they say, as to its giving rise to the insane or other cachexia in his offspring. It is, therefore, our duty to check “ as far as human means can, the propagation of mental disease, which is so hereditary in its character." We shall be glad to les from the Inspectors if they have any practicable scheme to offer the legislature by which we can deal with dipsomaniacs as we do with the ordinary class of insane persons, and thus secure to society at large “indirect but certain benefits.” This is, in our mind, one of the foremost social questions of the day, and we would gladly have laid before our readers any suggestions from the Inspectors which might tend to its solution. We hope they will return to the subject.

The admissions into the District Institutions during the year amounted to 2,277, the new cases numbering 1,849, and the relapsed cases 428. It is satisfactory to learn from the Inspectors that the attention of the Government has been drawn to the “inconveniences" - they use an altogether too mild a term—which are attendant on the abuse of the powers vested in magistrates by Lord Mayo's Act. This act will be no credit to the statute book as long as it remains unrepealed, and we hope that some of our Irish brethren will bring it under the notice of the Association at this year's meeting in Dublin. Nothing can be more repulsive to our modern ideas than sending a poor creature afflicted with disease under police escort to an hospital. The number thus admitted in 1873 (under the name of “ Dangerous Lunatics," but treated in their transit as if criminals) amounted to the enormous total of 1,226. It says little for the patriotism of Irish Members that they do not take steps to obtain a repeal by the Government of this Act. If Jane Smith becomes the subject of the physical disease termed insanity, she is quietly taken in a fly to the county asylum, accompanied by the relieving officer and a female nurse. If, however, poor Biddy O'Callaghan becomes the subject of the same disease, she is given into “custody" to two police constables in uniform, with their bayonets hanging from their belts, placed on an outside jaunting car, and driven through the streets, it may be, of a populous town to the district Hospital for the Insane, to which she is 5 committed” as a "dangerous lunatic.” And how injurious, too,

, must such a spectacle be to the poor inmates who can see a car such as we describe passing the windows of their day-room! We can easily imagine one whose mind has begun to resume its functions, asking herself—“ Was I brought here by the police, like that ?" That the evil is of great magnitude, warranting our dwelling on it so long, will be granted when we state that the report before us shows (v. p. 190) that in the year 1873 no less than 102 of the women admitted into a single asylum—the metropolitan one in Dublin-had to pass through the streets of that city under police escort! Why should Irish Biddy be thus treated as if she were a criminal, while English Elizabeth, when affected in an exactly similar way, is taken to the county asylum as decency suggests and humanity commands ? Let every nationalist M.P. keep on asking and asking again this question in the House of Commons, till the Act 30 and 31. Vict., c. 118, is erased from the statute book.

We observe that the Inspectors have omitted to give two tables of considerable interest which appeared in their report for 1872. We allude to those showing the time relapsed cases had been absent previous to their last admission and subsequent to their discharge as “ recovered.” We may here remark that, excluding transfers, the relapsed cases were in the proportion of 18.88 per cent. of the total number admitted in 1873. The proportion in England was 14.83 per cent. during the same year in the public asylums.

The recoveries during 1873 in the Irish District Hospitals were more numerous in proportion to the admissions than was the case in either England or Scotland. The ratio in each country was as follows:

In England, 33.95 per cent.; in Scotland, 41:41 per cent. ; and in Ireland, 45.27 per cent. of the admissions. We are sorry to find the Inspectors advocating the calculation of recovery percentages on total numbers under treatment. Such a method would be obviously unjust to the older institutions ; for the longer an asylum is in existence the larger must be the residue of incurable, or more correctly chronic cases. No one who has the most superficial acquaintance with the subject of insanity statistics could be guilty of the “ fallacy" they refer to “ of supposing that the recoveries had taken place exclusively among the admissions.” The great object we aim at in deciding on the method of calculating percentages is the avoidance of the greatest error. The question was exhaustively discussed by the Association's Committee appointed for the purpose, and the conclusion arrived at was in favour of the method now almost universally adopted, involving as it does less error than any other. We hope the Irish Inspectors will lend us their valuable support, as have already the English Commissioners, in endeavouring to get the statistics furnished by all public asylums drawn up in a similar manner. It is a pity that Ireland has remained so long the “ silent sister” in this respect. We feel sure, however, that if the Inspectors were to append to their next blue book a copy of Appendix K of the English Commissioners' Twenty-second Report, and suggest the adoption of the forms therein contained for the annual tables published by each district asylum, there would hardly be found a single superintendent who would object to the additional labour involved in such a contribution to science, onerous though their ordinary duties are.

The mortality during 1873 in the district asylums was low, being only at the rate of 9.86 per cent. of the average numbers resident. The proportion in England in the public asylums during the same period was 10:70 per cent. In Scotland it was only a little over 81 per cent. If, howerer, we calculate the ratio on the total number under treatment during the year, the percentages will be :-For Ireland, 7.06; for England, 8:31 ; and for Scotland only 6.21. In the Cork District Insane Hospital there seems to be a singular idea of the meaning of the term “ Death from natural causes.” Last year we remarked on the inconsistency between the figures given in two of the blue-book tables, owing to this peculiar mode of interpretation. The same thing has occurred again in the present blue-book, and in a similar way. At page 183 the Cork establishment is not credited with any deaths “from accidental causes;" whereas at page 201 three deaths are set down as having arisen from “ accident, violence, or suicide.” And yet at page 37 the Inspectors thus say, decidedly :-“We are happy to report that no death occurred through accidental or violent means during the year, which is all the more gratifying taking the crowded state of the asylum into consideration, and many of the patients having suicidal and dangerous tendencies.” Do they still look upon nervous decay” in Cork as a cause of death to be classified with “ accident, violence, or suicide ?” If so, it would be advisable to get the heading in the table altered. However, we

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