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that the clerk would see to such a book as this, but why should the Superintendent be burdened with the responsibility of it or any of the following being kept "at all times ready for inspection :"-(1) The General Register; (2) The Register of Discharges and Deaths; (3) The Morning Statement Book which shall contain a division of the patients according to their chargeability, the names of those under restraint or in seclusion, and the causes thereof—this in addition to a similar entry in “ The Medical Journal !"—the hour and duration of visits of the respective officers—all to be countersigned daily by the Superintendent. (4) The Want Book specifying how many shoelaces, kettles, quilts, &c., are required for the use of the asylum ; (5) The Minute Book containing a full and faithful record of the proceedings of the Board; (6) The Application Book, in which shall be entered the particulars of the several applications for admission ? Why, we repeat should the Superintendent be burdened with the responsibility of any of these seven books? Our readers will probably infer that the remaining two of the nine are those which, besides the “Medical Journal," are the only books an English Superintendent is held responsible for, namely, the Case Book and the Superintendent's Journal. If so they are in error.

The first part of Rule 35 might surely have been omitted. The idea of imposing such a restriction on a high-minded and intelligent officer (and we must suppose none else would be placed in a position of such trust) is somewhat humiliating. We are not aware that any such gratuitously vexatious personal restriction is in existence in similar institutions elsewhere. The Rule runs as follows :

He shall never be absent from the Asylum at the same time with the matron, nor even for the night without special leave from a Board of Governors, or the Inspector, and upon every such absence he shall enter in the book the date and period.

The 89th Rule is only a suggestion, as it were, in its second paragraph. It runs thus :

Attendants or servants are on no account to receive any perquisites, either in money or value, from patients or from the friends of patients; any infraction of this rule should be punished by immediate dismissal.

But who is to dismiss immediately ? This difficulty seems to have been in the mind of the framer of the rule, for he doubtless recollected that by the humiliating 32nd Rule such an offence could not even be visited by suspension, much less dismissal.

On the whole we cannot speak very highly of the tact or wisdom shown by the Lord Lieutenant and Privy Council in the framing of the new Code of Regulations. We have gone to some trouble to point out clearly those which seem to require revision. An oppor. tunity for the discussion of them by the Association at large will present itself at the coming meeting in Dublin, and we doubt not that our Irish brethren will then express their views forcibly and eloquently,

We have left ourselves little space to notice many features of interest in the blue-book before us, and must content ourselves for the present with merely drawing attention to a valuable table which appears among the details supplied regarding classification in each of the twenty-two district asylums, with the exception of Armagh and Carlow. By comparing these tables we find that on an average there is only provision for one-fourth of the patients to sleep in single rooms. On this point we would quote, as coinciding most decidedly with our own, the opinion of Commissioner Wilkins, who says :

We are satisfied that the number of single rooms for one-third of the patients is too small to insure the best results. We are fully aware of the ad. vantages to be derived from the association of patients, but think this can be done to best advantage during the day in large and pleasant airing-courts, sitting-rooms, and pleasure grounds.

We were surprised to find that in no less than four public asylums two-bedded dormitories are still in use. We had thought that long ere this the great risks of such rooms had caused them to be given up in all asylums, and the last one we expected to find them existing in was the one for the Richmond District at Dublin. Knowing the views of Dr. Lalor (as so plainly stated in his Presidential Address to the Association some twelve or thirteen years ago) we were not surprised to find by the tables under review that in the same asylumthe Richmond (for the “ effective classification in which the Inspectors, having it under their “ close and constant supervision,” take some credit—v. p. 91)-no less than sixty-two men sleep in one dormitory. None of the other Irish districts has anything at all approaching to this; the next largest in any of them being for only thirty-two, while in fourteen out of the twenty giving information on this point there is no dormitory with more than nineteen beds.

Many of the members of our association will doubtless be visiting Dublin this year. It may not, therefore, be out of place—especially on account of the decided views held by Dr. Lalor on the subject of the treatment of the insane collectively, rather than individually—if we give here an epitome of the figures supplied at pp. 89 and 90 of the Report before us. There are nine wards for males and nine for females in the Richmond district, accommodating respectively 475 and 565 patients between them. Thus 1,040 patients are warded in 18 divisions. The largest of these is for 140 patients, the smallest for 17. The five largest wards (or “ divisions”) have an average of 114 patients in each. As these are doubtless the wards which are most in accordance with Dr. Lalor's ideas, we present our readers with a reference table regarding them No, xix. Ward, Female side, accommodates 140 patients. ix. Male

132 xiv. Female

viii. Male



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Of the remaining thirteen wards, seven accommodate 40 patients or more, and the others are for 37, 30, 28, 26 (two), and 17 respectively. If the nurse in charge of one of these large wards is able to give a good account of each of her patients, she must certainly be a person of no ordinary ability and conscientiousness.

Schools for the Insane.- We do not find in the report before us any expression of opinion on the part of the Inspectors as to the success of this experiment. It has been tried during the last 20 years at the Richmond District Establishment, but the only allusion to the schools there is contained in the brief statement at p. 90, that they were attended by 117 males out of a daily average of 456. No mention is made of the attendance at the female schools. We find, however, the following notice of the school at the Sligo District Asylum (v. p. 96): –

The school continues a source of agreeable pastime as stated by the Resident Medical Superintendent, who has no doubt as to its remedial efficacy, and also as to its moderate utility in an educational point of view.

The Criminal Insane and Insane Criminals.—The Inspectors add their testimony to the universal protest now being made against these two very different classes being treated alike. Ireland led the van in the movement for the dissociation from the ordinary insane of all those in any way mixed up with crime ; but we fear from the remarks of the Inspectors, in more than one place in the report before us, that the tendency is now in a retrograde direction. We highly approve, however, of their idea of having attached to each convict establishment a sort of probationary ward, in which those prisoners exhibiting signs of insanity might be kept under observation for a short period before being sent to Dundrum near Dublin, where the “ Criminal Asylum”-the first of the kind in the three kingdoms, and one reflecting great credit on the management-has been in operation since 1850. With regard to such persons, the Inspectors make the following excellent remarks :

It is a remarkable fact that persons of this class not unfrequently bring with them to the Asylum the same obstinacy, impatience of restraint, and per. versity of feeling which had rendered them unmanageable under prison discipline. Sometimes the existence of the alleged insanity in these individuals is really doubtful, their persistent disregard of discipline, their unwillingness to profit by the lessons of experience, and their mischievous disposition having led to the conclusion that their conduct must be attributable to mental or moral obliquity, although they betray no delusions. Indeed we can hardly be surprised if, under these circumstances, an opinion should be elsewhere entertained that such impracticables are not fit subjects for asylum treatment.

But with regard to the above classes of insane patients, we feel bound to protest against any such being sent to the District Hospitals for the Insane, which should be exclusively appropriated for the care and treatment of the ordinary insane who have not been the subjects of any criminal taint or charge, direct or indirect. The law is, to our mind, very plain on this important point of detail, as the following extract from the Act, viz., 8 & 9 Vict., c. 107, s. 8.,—an Act intituled one “ for the establishment of a Central Asylum for Insane persons charged with offences in Ireland,” shews :

Be it enacted That whenever and as soon as the Central Asylum shall be erected, and fit for the reception of criminal lunatics, it shall be lawful for the Lord Lieutenant or other chief governor or governors of Ireland to order and direct that all criminal lunatics then in custody in any Lunatic Asylum or Gaol, or who shall thereafter be in custody, shall be removed without delay to such central asylum, and shall be kept there in so long as such criminal lunatics re. spectively shall be detained in custody.

Nothing can be plainer than the above in regard to the “ custody" of “ Criminal Lunatics,” and this retrograde movement of placing such characters within the walls of the ordinary establishments, is nothing short of a direct breach of the law as it stands.

We are further convinced of the great injustice and impropriety of so doing by the proceedings at a recent meeting of the Berlin MedicoPsychological Society, of which the following is an extract, so very pertinent to the subject under consideration, as transcribed into the Medical Times and Gazette of the 6th February :

Disposal of Insane Prisoners. As already observed, the mode of managing insane prisoners has hitherto been very objectionable, and it may be asked whether it would not be the better plan to send them to lunatic asylums.

This, at first sight, would seem to be the natural solution of the question.

It is, however, not a practical solution, for the transference of such prisoners to asylums is the law at the present time, after due care has been taken to acquire assurance that the patient is not simulating.

Dismissal from the prison on prophylactic grounds, however, never takes place, and only chronic and incurable cases are really brought to the asylums. These lunatic asylums hardly suffice for the wants of the free population, and are not suited to insane criminals, who, when assembled together, conspire, and require careful watching. In consequence, and in spite of their insanity, they are persons possessed of criminal intentions and immoral habits, rendering them unfit for the society of other lunatics.

Many lunatic asylums have protested against the reception of such patients, and more still will do so if all categories of prisoners of unsound mind are sent to them.

Most of the mentally diseased prisoners are not diseased in the sense of rendering them suitable inmates for ordinary lunatic asylums.

The best solution of the question would be the establishment of a department of the prison for lunatics, which, as far as the treatment of the diseases of its inmates is concerned, should be under the management of a regular psycho. logical physician. This should be divided into two sections, one of which, destined for the actually insane, should be furnished with every appliance for their treatment.

The other section should admit the temporarily insane, the weak-minded, and all those whose cases require watching, as well as those who, in consequence of their physical condition, require a milder treatment than could be applied to them in the prison itself. Herr Ideler observed that his daily experience convinced him of the impropriety of introducing these insane prisoners into asylums, where they prove constant sources of disturbance. Lunatic asylums should have nothing to do with them, and no harm can result from their being treated in the prisons.

We have not left ourselves space to refer to many other interesting matters in the Report of the Inspectors, nor to take notice of the Private Establishments for the Insane in Ireland, further than to quote the statement made in regard to them—viz., “We are gratified at being enabled to report that, looking to the general working of private licensed houses during the past year, not a single cause of complaint sufficient to need an official inquiry was preferred to the Executive or to the Inspector; neither was there an instance of improper detention.” (p. 110.)

We have only, in conclusion, to say that the statistics are, taken as a whole, remarkably complete; their preparation must have been a most laborious task to both Inspectors and Medical Superintendents respectively; and further, that the entire contents of this bluebook for 1873 evince great care and labour in compilation, and reflect no small credit upon the department from which it has einanated.

2. French Retrospect.

By T. W. McDowaLL, M.D., Edin., and J. G. McDowall, M.B., Edin.

(" Annales Médico-Psychologiques" for 1874.)

On the Influence of Moral Causes upon the Body and specially upon

the Nervous System. This great subject is treated by Dr. Védie by giving very shortly :

1.- A resume of those psychological facts which bear most upon the subject.

2.-An examination of physiological phenomena connected with the former. Then shall become evident the laws which govern all psychological and physiological phenomena.

3.—The application of these laws to pathology and therapeutics; or, what is equivalent, an examination of the pathological and therapeutical phenomena produced by mental causes. The question of miracles naturally falls to be discussed in connection with this part of the subject.

4.-The reasons why some educated people and even physicians err in their views concerning miracles, and misunderstand the natural laws which regulate these phenomena.

It is unnecessary to reproduce any of the author's remarks on the analysis and synthesis of the phenomena of consciousness, but we may indicate his method of treating of the action of the emotions on the organism. He divides the subject as follows:

I.-Effects of moral causes upon the cerebro-spinal system and upon the great sympathetic.

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