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attains to the notion of the mind as “a void or hollow sphere, outside and in immediate contact with which is the material brain, and beyond this again the person and things of the material world, with which the brain is connected by nerves distributed throughout the body. Of the nature of this sphere we know nothing : all our knowledge is confined to its contents; and these are the conscious being itself—the psyche, and the various phenomena of which it is conscious. Comprehending, so to speak, these phenomena, the mind does not comprehend itself: it exists outside the sphere of consciousness, of which, in fact, it forms the limitation.” Such is philosophy which has undergone a thirty years' gestation ! How the author reached it, as he professes to have done, through the analysis of his facts of his consciousness, passes our comprehension. Certainly his consciousness must be an extraordinary one, if it has really revealed these things unto him through self-analysis. He claims for the hypothesis that, among other merits which it has, it reconciles the realist and the idealist, and that it is a bulwark against materialism with all its desolating consequences; and be demands that, if unsound, it shall be refuted rather than ridiculed, for “ridi. cule is not refutation.” Will he forgive us for saying that there are some hypotheses which are too ridiculous for serious refutation ?

In the foregoing criticism we have been concerned entirely with the author's philosophical theories, which we believe to be neither so sound nor so important as he imagines; in taking leave of his book, we may express our agreement with many of the moral reflections which occupy a great part of it, are expressed in a clear and attractive style, and may be read and appreciated without reference to his philosophical theories.

System of Positive Polity, or Treatise on Sociology, instituting

the Religion of Humanity. By AUGUSTE COMTE. First Volume.

We have been pleased to see the announcement of the forthcoming publication in English of Comte's works, and gladly welcome this first instalment, excellently well translated by Dr. Bridges, Inspector of the Local Government Board. Other translations are to follow by others of the small but distinguished band of Comtists in this country

We say

-Mr. Congreve, Mr. Beesly, and Mr. Frederic Harrison. When the series is completed, the result can hardly fail to be to convince Englishmen that Comte was not the crack-brained fanatic which so many of them imagine him to have been.

so many of them,” but in truth the so many who know anything at all about him are very few; and it is probable that if his name were mentioned in the hearing of the brewers, shipowners, bankers, gin distillers, and all kinds of rich people, who constitute so large an element in that body, which, with insular and vulgar arrogance, fluent penny-aliners, and even some members of it whose imaginations reach no higher than the penny-a-lining level, declare to be “the first assembly of gentlemen in Europe,” they would be moved to exclaim—Who was the fellow ? And if it were answered unto them, that he was a philosopher, who thought it a nobler aim of life to pursue wisdom than to accumulate vast wealth by brewing beer, distilling gin, or sending unseaworthy ships to sea, it is not to be doubted that his character would be clean gone in their minds, and that he would be deemed no better than a visionary fool.

The sober-minded Englishman who reads the remarkable dedication of this volume, is not unlikely to be frightened from proceeding farther in its perusal. It is—“To the sacred memory of my eternal friend Madame Clotilde de Vaux, who died in my presence the 5th of April, 1846, at the beginning of her thirty-second year. Gratitude, regret, resignation, who is addressed as “Noble, tender hearted victim.” And it concludes with the following paragraph:

Farewell, changeless friend! farewell, my saint Clotilda, thou who wert to me in the stead of wife, of sister, and of child ! farewell, loved pupil, true fellow-worker! Thy angel influence will govern what remains to me of life, whether public or private, ever urging me onwards towards perfection ; purifying feeling, enlarging thought, ennobling conduct I

duct! May this solemn incorporation into my whole life reveal at last to the world thy hidden worth! Thus only can thy benefits now be recognised, by rendering my own performance of the mighty task before me more complete. As the highest personal reward for the noble work that yet remains to be done under thy lofty inspiration, it will be granted perhaps that thy name shall remain ever joined with - mine in the most distant memories of grateful humanity.

La pierre du cercueil est ton premier autel. He laments that the sacred union of their hearts was only for a year, “our sacred year of happiness.” Perhaps the Comte may

brevity of the felicity was not altogether a misfortune; had it lasted for ten years, it may well be doubted whether he would have written of her in such a strain of what we cannot help calling infatuation. Familiarity, as its habit is, might have bred a weariness if not a contempt in one who through life shewed little of the spirit of self-renunciation. The samples of her literary productions which are given in the appendix to this volume do not seem to warrant the extravagance of reverence and gratitude which Comte expresses for her. And we must confess that, notwithstanding our admiration of Comte's services to philosophy, there is to us something nauseating in the idea that in the most distant future ages Clotilde de Vaux shall be worshipped as a saint in the religion of humanity. It was hardly worth while to dethrone the Virgin Mary in order to enthrone Madame Clotilde de Vaux.

Let not the reader, however, be too swift to judge the character of the treatise from its dedication. have been mad at one period of his life-was indeed confined for a time as a lunatic-and may have been infatuated unto the end of his days, but no one who is qualified to give an opinion can question the important services which he has rendered to the intellectual progress of mankind, or doubt that his reputation will grow greater in the time to come. We are too near him yet to judge him fairly; and as we must get some distance away from a mountain in order to perceive its height, so it will be necessary that he should recede some distance into the past before his height in relation to his contemporaries and to the great men of preceding ages can be justly estimated. It is impossible to open this volume at random, and to read five consecutive pages, without acknowledging the wide and powerful grasp of thought displayed in it, and without feeling that we have to do, not with a transitory work of barren criticism and attenuated exposition, but with a profound work of philosophical construction which, whether right or wrong in its doctrines, will live long after the men of this generation shall be “green in death, and festering in their shrouds." Assuredly Comte's treatises are now an essential and important part of the history of philosophy, and ought to be carefully studied. We are glad, therefore, that his disciples in this country have resolved to make them more accessible to English readers. The task was almost incumbent on them as an act of justice to their great master, who has not received the acknowledgments which were his due from some of those who have profited largely by his labours.

We are unable on this occasion to enter into a full review of the work before us; the labours of life leave so little time to live; but we cherish the hope of being able at some future period to place before our readers an account of Comte's life and works. For the present it must suffice to state on what basis this work stands :-“Its object being in accordance with the essential purpose of true philosophy, to systematise human life as a whole on the principle of the subordination of the intellect to the heart. .. After frankly devoting the first half of my life to the development of the heart by the intellect, I saw its second halfconsecrated to the illumination of the intellect by the heart, so necessary to give the true character to great social truths. But how could I hope for these new inspirations unless I had myself experienced the full strength of that feeling which is most powerful to raise man from his primal self-absorption, by deriving its highest happiness from another ?” By a happy coincidence he became acquainted with Clotilde de Vaux, and had these strong emotions awakened at the very moment when his new work demanded personal experience of tender feelings. Thus she became the agent of his moral renovation, without which his mission must have remained incomplete. Looking at the matter from Comte's stand point, one cannot well help sliding into his conclusion. He was an organ of humanity, whose function it was to do a great philosophical work; half this work would have been abortive, had it not been for the tender feelings aroused in him by Clotilda ; his love for her inspired him to the full accomplishment of his mission. Was she not then truly his Saint Clotilda, whose name shall justly be joined with his in the most distant memories of grateful humanity? The answer will depend upon the value of the work of the second part of his life. And that is the question.

Heredity: A Psychological Study of its Phenomena, Laws,

Causes, and Consequences. Translated from the French of

Th. Ribot. HENRY S. King & Co., 1875. On a former occasion, we noticed with praise M. Ribot's work entitled “Contemporary English Psychology,” and we are happy to think the present work equally deserving of praise. The author displays the same gratifying acquaintance with the works of English writers which his former work evinced, and he has the advantage of a subject information concerning which will be more profitable to English readers. It might be interesting and useful to Frenchmen to have a lucid and concise abstract of the writings of Messrs. Mill, Bain, Lewes, Spencer, and Bailey, but it is natural to suppose that those of their own countrymen who were interested in philosophical questions, would study the original works of these authors. This is not so with the subject of “Heredity.” So far as we know, there is no complete work upon the subject in the English language; nothing at all certainly to be compared with the excellent Traité Physiologique et Philosophique de l' Hérédité Naturelle, by Dr. P. Lucas, which was published many years ago in France. It is strange that the valuable materials contained in that treatise should be so little known as they are in England. However, the doctrine of Darwinism, for which it did something to prepare the way, cannot fail eventually to make it better known. M. Ribot's work incorporates the results of Darwin's researches, as well as those of Moreau, Morel, and others in morbid psychology, and so goes beyond the level which Lucas was able to reach at the time when he wrote.

The physiological side of the question of heredity has been diligently studied, but not so its psychological side. It is this deficiency which the author proposes to supply in the present work. It is a study of the hereditary transmission of mental faculties, considered in its phenomena, its laws, its consequences, and especially in its causes ; this study being preceded by a brief account of what is known of the phenomena and laws of physiological heredity. In the first part of the work he treats of the heredity of instinct, of the sensorial qualities, of memory, of the imagination, of the intellect, of the sentiments and passions, and of the will, as also of heredity and national character, and of morbid psychological heredity. In the second part he discusses the laws of heredity, direct and indirect, and considers the exceptions to the supposed laws. The third part is devoted to an exposition of the general relations between the physical and the moral nature, and points out how the doctrine of psychological and physiological heredity bears upon the elucidation of these relations. The last part deals with heredity in its relation to the law of evolution, and sets forth the psychological, moral, and social consequences of heredity. Readers will perceive, from this brief summary of contents, what varied, abundant,

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