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Each brother' was to bring with him either his wife or 'ung demoiselle.' This very phrase shows that the London ladies considered themselves as high born; and the sum to be paid was 2s. for himself, 2s. for the lady, and 2s. for the priest.' Well might the feast be splendid when more than 17. 4s. present money was paid for each. The payment for the priest, however, doubtless formed his salary; for he had to attend on all public occasions, and at all funerals. That the whole fraternity should attend the burial of a brother, under pain of a heavy fine, is also set forth in the 'poinctes;' and if the deceased was so poor that 'he left not sufficient to bury him according to his station,' then the guild took the whole charge; at the same time requiring -with that kindly feeling of which we meet so many proofsthat the poor brother should be followed to the grave even as the rich one had been, by all the brethren. It was on these occasions that the splendid corse-cloth,' or pall-one of which belonged to each company, adorned with their armorial bearings, and the effigy of their patron saint-was used. In some cases there appear to have been two; and then, as an old rule of the Goldsmiths' Company gallantly enacts, at the funerals of the sisters, the best pall should always be used. A proof that these companies were founded on the principle of the Saxon religious benefit guilds, is supplied by the fact, that women were in nearly all-very probably in all-eligible as members. When they first ceased to be so it is difficult to ascertain. The custom, however, of their being present at the feasts—a custom, singularly enough, kept up to the present time at the chief civic festival, Lord Mayor's Day-was continued to a very recent period; and we are inclined to think that its disuse must be attributed to the coarse gormandizing habits, and love of deep potations, which came in with the punch and strong port wine of the two first Georges' days.

Excessive drinking happily does not seem to have been characteristic of our civic forefathers in the middle ages. The light wines of France, and the sweet wines of Spain and Italy-then but sparingly used-were scarcely fitted for hard drinkers. The lower classes, indeed, with their strong ale, indulged in deep potations, and often gave proof of their genuine Saxon descent by their tipsy combativeness. Lydgate tells us, too, of the clanking of cans, and songs of Jenkin and Julian,' and the 'pewter pots clattered on a heap,' in that celebrated place for good eating and drinking, Eastcheap; and the bad wines sold there for the retail vintners, notwithstanding the diligent surveillance of the company, were, from a very early period, right learned in the art of adulteration'-doubtless aided this con

fusion. But then, the decent householder, the trader, who looked forward to becoming warden of his company, perchance alderman of his ward, kept aloof from such places, and took his sober refreshment at home, or in the tavern. This latter custom seems to have struck our continental visitors. The Venetian ambassador, whose curious account of London at the close of the fifteenth century was lately published by the Camden Society, remarks this, and also that ladies of distinction might sometimes be seen there. He also affords a curious proof of how domestic habits continue unchanged from generation to generation, where he tells us 'the London house' wives always bake meat for the Sundays, and sometimes enough for the whole week.' Another contemporary refers to the English love of roast meat, and of sweet puddings, and pies at 'Christmas, in such numbers, that the baker's oven is in constant "requisition for a full week beforehand.' The former writer, too, gives us a curious scene in old London streets- the little children holding bread and butter, given them by their mothers,' and the kites,' so numerous and so tame, that they often take it from their hands. Both writers, the Venetian ambassador from queenly Venice, and Polydore Virgil, from the banks of the beautiful Arno, agree in celebrating the picturesque beauty of the River Thames. Its broad current, which then, indeed, rolled a silver stream,'-the noble buildings on its northern side-above all, the flocks of milk-white swans, 'truly a beautiful thing to behold, even from one to two thousand floating on the water,' seem to have excited an admiration beyond every other scene in old London.

At the period when these two Italians wrote, the close of the fifteenth century, London must indeed have been a beautiful city. And so thought Mayster Robert Fabyan,' citizen and mercer, when, after telling of her ancient renown in his 'Concordance of Hystoryes,' he rises, shall we say, into rhyme, and celebrates Troy-nouvant

"Where honor and worship bothe do haunt,
With virtue and ryches accordaunt,

No citie is it lyke;

With rivers fresh, and wholesome ayre,
With women that be gode and fayre;'

and, moreover, a very land of Cockayne,' for the variety and abundance of her provisions. We have still some remains of this period, although, within a few years past, so many an interesting relic of old London has been so ruthlessly swept away. There is still the interesting church of St. Mary Overies, with the tomb of our venerable poet, Gower, and the altar

at which, his sad captivity ended, James the First, of Scotland, received the hand of the sweet Lady Jane Beaufort-the sweet Lady Jane, who, he tells us, first appeared like some bright vision to gild his lone prison, when, in the little 'pleasaunce' at Windsor, she stood, all unconscious of his gaze, gathering flowers that glad May morning. And there is Guildhall, although altered, and improved' forsooth, until little of its original character remains. Guildhall, not interesting from its giantsalthough they have ere now played a part in London pageants— but as the spot whither, during the wars of the Roses, the champions of the Red and of the White summoned their partisans; the spot where Whittington stood as king of the cityWhittington, whose story, true to the human heart, although not to his history, will not be forgotten. And then there is Crosby Hall, the stately reception-room of the London merchant. Beautiful Crosby Hall-as it still is, with that elegant oriel, well fitted for Dame Anne, whose beautiful effigy rests, with folded hands, in the adjoining church, to have sat in, touching her lute, or 'sewing silke broderie there :' Crosby Hall, whither so many of our kings and great men came; where, under the patronage of Sydney's sister,' the gifted Countess of Pembroke, so many of the stars of Elizabeth's days, perchance Shakespeare himself, were welcome visitants.

We intended to contemplate London, both past and present, but our space is filled up, and we are yet tracing the past. Perhaps, however, these desultory sketches may awaken in some mind an interest in the past history of our venerable city, and a desire to know more. Well pleased will the writer be, and well rewarded, should this be the result. We send inquirers to the interior of Africa, to search for the relics of empires long passed away; we read with eager wonder the details of travellers, who, in Central America, have discovered those mysterious remains which mock the most anxious inquiries of the antiquary to discover their origin; we follow with intense interest Layard, on the banks of the Tigris, exhuming those mighty remains of earliest civilization; we patronize expensive works; we fit up noble museums; we pursue untiringly researches into the history, the geography, the religion, the civil polity, the arts and architecture of the ancient world,-but for England, for her chief city, we remain contented, not even with secondhand, but with fifth and sixthhand information, and even that desultory and fragmentary.

It is time that this should cease. True, ancient London, Roman, Saxon, or mediæval, might never boast giant remains like those of Egypt, or magnificent structures, stretching out in

measureless extent, like those of Nineveh; but still, what are these nations, in their influence, to us? what to the present world-to mankind in the nineteenth century? But the ancient dwellers in London still bear sway, still speak to us in our language, in our institutions, in our associations, in our feelings. They are our fathers, from whom we have received a noble heritage, and who at least demand at our hands that we should not be unmindful of their history.

ART. V. Report of the Seventeenth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held at Oxford, in June, 1847. London. 1848. 8vo, pp. 523.

THE British Association has at length given a becoming prominence to the science to which so many departments of knowledge are tributary. More than two hundred pages of the Report of its Transactions for 1847 are occupied with ethnographical communications from the able pens of Drs. Latham, Prichard, and Charles Meyer, and the Chevalier Bunsen. In former years, talented essays on the natural history of man were returned to their authors without having obtained a hearing. The arrangements of the Association were made irrespective of the existence of a branch of study cultivated with the utmost assiduity and success in Germany, and by not a few learned men in this country. Even now, ethnology is regarded as an appendage to physiology, and treated as a subsection of this science, thus esteeming the portico superior to the temple to which it leads. Bunsen has consequently been induced to assert its claim to a more elevated position, in these words:

'Ethnological science has arrived in the course of this century at results, if less known in some parts of the world, certainly not less important, than those of which any branch of science represented in this illustrious body can boast; and that, moreover, it has arrived at these results by a legitimate and methodical process, not by chance, or by accidental ingenuity. If man is the apex of the creation, it seems right, on the one side, that an historical inquiry into his origin and development should never be allowed to sever itself from the general body of natural science, and in particular from physiology. But, on the other hand, if man is the apex of creation, if he is the end to which all organic formations tend from the very beginning; if man is at once the mystery and the key of natural science; if that is the only view of natural science worthy of our age, then ethnologic philology, once established on principles as clear as the physiological are, is the highest

branch of that science for the advancement of which this association is instituted. It is not an appendix to physiology or to anything else; but its object is, on the contrary, capable of becoming the end and goal of the labours and transactions of a scientific association.'Report, p. 257.

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Dr. Prichard also complained, a few years since, in the opening sentences of his admirable work on the Physical History of Mankind,' that his researches had been more favourably estimated by continental scholars than by his own 'utilitarian countrymen.' The ground of this just complaint is, we believe, fast passing away. The British Association has certainly taken a step in the right direction, and has thus expressed the growing conviction of the community, that this subject is worthy to rank with the recognised branches of knowledge. Instead of discussing the merits of this report, or reviewing its matter, we shall endeavour to make our readers acquainted with some of the most important conclusions deducible from the facts contained therein, strongly recommending, however, the perusal of these papers as an invaluable digest of the present state of the science.

The human race form no exception to the universal variety of nature, for man presents different qualities, physical and intellectual, in different localities. The extremes of mental refinement and animal degradation are exhibited in the European and the Bushman. The perfection of physical form is found in the Arab, while the Australian is destitute of every element of manly beauty. Colour classifies the human family into black, red, yellow, and white men, with their intervening shades. These different tribes, with their peculiarities, constitute a distinct subject of study, a separate science-ethnology. And so comprehensive is this science, that the anatomist, physiologist, historian, traveller, and linguist severally contribute the facts they have collected to elucidate the interesting topics about which it is conversant. The extent of the science compels selection, while the object of this article determines the choice. Ethnology in relation to theology is the theme on which we propose to offer a few remarks, but our limits preclude the possibility of indicating anything more than the results of scientific research in this important department.

The unity and the primeval history of mankind are points on which this science has its own conclusions. It behoves us to see whether these are contradictory to, or confirmative of, the statements of Scripture; premising, however, our conviction that it is only science falsely so called' that can furnish

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