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Definitions (a) Aeronautical Light. Any luminous sign or signal recognized by competent authority, which is established, maintained, exhibited, or operated as an aid to air navigation,
(b) Airfield. Any landing area on the ground at which no facilities are available for public use for the shelter, servicing, or repair of aircraft or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo. Cf. Airport,
(c) Airport. Any landing area on the ground or water at which facilities are provided for the shelter, servicing, or repair of aircraft or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo. Cf. Airfield.
(d) Airway. A designated path through the navigable air space, identified by an area of a specified width on the surface of the earth.
(e) Airway Beacon. A light beacon serving to indicate a point on an airway.
(f) Approach Area. An area on the ground adjacent to the end of a landing strip and bounded by defined limits. (Also called flightway.)
(g) Approach Lights. Aeronautical lights provided in an approach
(h) Apron. A paved or surfaced area where aircraft stand for purposes of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refueling, parking, or maintenance.
(i) Apron Floodlight. A light provided to illuminate the surface of an apron.
(j) Auxiliary Beacon. A light beacon used in conjunction with a beacon for purposes of clarifying or completing the signal of that beacon.
(k) Aviation Colors. Red, Green, Blue, Yellow, White. Colors specified by the international organization for air navigation for use in aeronautical lights.
(1) Beacon. A light arranged, either through optical design or mechanical motion, to be visible at all azimuths, either continuously or consecutively, to designate a particular point on the surface of the earth. See Airway Beacon, Auxiliary Beacon, Code Beacon, Hazard Beacon, Landmark Beacon, Oscillating Beacon, Rotating Beacon.
(m) Boundary Lights. Lights mounted around the boundary of the usable landing area and so circuited that the entire useful landing area is delineated as a unit.
a unit. Cf. Contact Lights, Strip Lights.
(n) Boundary Obstruction Lights. Those boundary lights installed on or between obstructions and the landing area, or delimiting closed portions of the landing area.
(o) Boundary Range Lights. Those boundary lights installed to indicate a preferred landing path, and so identified that they can be used for ranging, i. e. lining up the aircraft with the preferred landing path. Cf. Threshold Lights.
(p) Code Beacon. A light beacon, normally an auxiliary beacon, designed or used to display a signal coded by color or cyclic light characteristic or both.
(q) Contact Lights. Lights so arranged along a runway as to indicate the lateral limits of the area available for landing and so circuited that a single runway may be delineated as a unit. They may also undertake the direction of landing and take-off. Cf. Boundary Lights,
Strip Lights. (r) Course Light. A projector designed or operated to project a beam of light along the course of an airway. Normally used in conjunction with an airway beacon.
(s) Fixed Light. A light having constant luminous intensity when observed from a fixed point.
(t) Flashing Light. A light operated so as to be lighted and extinguished in cyclic sequence by intermittent application of power or fuel. Cf. Occulting Light, Undulating Light.
(u) Floodlight. A light designed or operated to illuminate an area, especially a light of high intensity provided with optical means for concentrating the light, e. g. apron floodlight, airport floodlight, airfield floodlight, runway floodlight.
(v) Glide Path Light. A landing area light designed or operated to project a characteristic beam of very restricted vertical spread along the desired glide path. This beam may or may not be supplemented with beams of different characteristics to designate positions above or below the desired glide path.
(w) Hazard Beacon. A light beacon used to designate an extended or particularly dangerous hazard to air navigation.
(x) International Airport. An airport used or available for use by international air traffic.
(y) Landing Area. Any surface of land or water specially prepared or selected, which is used or intended to be used to facilitate landing and take-off of aircraft.
(z) Landing Direction Indicator. A device positioned manually either locally or by remote control, installed for the purpose of visually indicating to an aircraft the desired direction of landing or take-off.
(aa) Landing Strip. See Strip.
(bb) Landmark Beacon. A light beacon, used to designate a particular landmark, to assist the pilot of an aircraft in determining his position.
(cc) Light. A luminous signal.
(dd) Obstruction Lights. Lights mounted on or adjacent to obstructions or potential hazards to aircraft moving on the ground or in the navigable air space for the purpose of indicating the obstructions or hazards.
(ee) Occulting Light. A light operated so as to be exposed and obscured in cyclic sequence by a mechanical or optical shutter without variation in the power or fuel supply. Cf. Flashing Light, Undulating Light.
(ff) Oscillating Beacon. A beacon having an undulating beam
characteristic brought about by periodic motion of the light source near the focal point of the optic.
(gg) Range Lights. See Boundary Range Lights.
(hh) Rotating Beacon. A light beacon having a flashing beam characteristic brought about by mechanical rotation of the optical system
about a vertical axis. (ii) Runway. A surfaced path (coaxial with a strip) along which aircraft take off and land.
(jj) Runway Floodlight. A floodlight designed or operated to illuminate essentially a runway only.
(kk) Searchlight. A light having an intense, highly collimated beam designed or operated to illuminate distant objects.
(11) Spotlight. A searchlight, usually a small searchlight.
(mm) Strip. A cleared and graded rectangular portion of the usable landing area, sometimes enveloping a surfaced runway.
(nn) Strip Lights. Lights mounted along the edges of a landing strip and so circuited that a single landing strip may be delineated as a unit. Cf. Boundary Lights, Contact Lights.
(00) Taxi Holding Posts. Designated positions along the taxiways or runways at which aircraft moving on the ground may be required to stop pending receipt of permission to proceed.
(pp) Taxiways. Designated paths or paved strips to be used by aircraft when moving on the ground between the usable landing area (including runways and taxiways) and the aprons.
(qq) Taxiway Lights. Landing area lights mounted along an edge or edges of a taxiway and designed or operated to delineate the taxiway.
(rr) Threshold Lights. Contact or strip lights mounted across the ends of a runway to denote the entrance to or threshold thereof. Cf. Range Lights.
(ss) Undulating Light. A light operated to be continuously luminous but increasing and decreasing in intensity in cyclic sequence. Cf. Flashing Light, Occulting Light.
(tt) Usable Landing Area. That part of a landing area, having essential level contour and essentially free of obstructions, that is used or intended to be used for actual landing or take-off of aircraft.
(uu) Wind Indicator. A device positioned by the surface wind and installed for the purpose of visually indicating to the aircraft the direction of the surface wind.
(vv) Wind Sock. A wind indicator in the form of a truncated fabric cone mounted with its length horizontal. Sometimes called a wind cone or sleeve.
(ww) Wind Tee. A wind indicator in the form of a T.
(xx) Wind Tetrahedron. A wind indicator in the form of a tetrahedron mounted with the major axis essentially horizontal.
1. Reservation of Meanings. The meanings and characteristics given to the various markings, lights, and signals in this Annex are reserved to them exclusively when used in aeronautical practice.
2. Types of Airways. For uniformity in classification, airways covered by this Annex shall be divided into three classes:
CLASS A-Transoceanic. Airways having Class A land or water airports, airfields, landing area contact flight aids (including lighting), instrument aids to navigation, instrument aids to take-off, final approach, and landing, communications service, air traffic control service (including warning of collision and aircraft distress services), and meteorological service, all as specified in the Annexes. Class Ä airways may include instrument aids to taxiing.
CLASS B-Transcontinental. Airways having Class B land or water airports, airfields, landing area contact flight aids (including lighting), instrument aids to navigation, instrument aids to take-off
, final approach, and landing, communications service, air traffic control service (including warning of collision and aircraft distress services), and meteorological service, all as specified in the Annexes. Class B airways may include airways contact flight aids and instrument aids to taxiing.
CLASS C-Interstate. Airways having Class C land or water airports, airfields, landing area day marking devices, communications service, aircraft distress service, and meteorological service, all as specified in the Annexes. Class C airways may include airways contact flight aids, landing area luminous marking devices, instrument aids to navigation, instrument aids to take-off, final approach, and landing, instrument aids to taxiing, and air traffic control service.
Landing Areas 3. Land Airports.
(a) Types of Land Airports. For uniformity in classification, land airports covered by this Annex shall be divided into three classes (all dimensions being based on sea level standard atmosphere conditions):
CLASS A-Transoceanic. Land airports having at least one surfaced instrument runway 7,000 feet (2,150 meters) or more long, capable of safely accommodating the continuous operation of aircraft having a wheel load of 75,000 pounds (34,000 kilograms), or a gross weight of 150,000 pounds (68,000 kilograms).
CLASS B-Transcontinental. Land airports having at least one surfaced instrument runway 5,000 feet (1,500 meters) or more long, capable of safely accommodating the continuous operation of aircraft having a wheel load of 50,000 pounds (22,500 kilograms), or a gross weight of 100,000 pounds (45,000 kilograms).
CLASS C-Interstate. Land airports having at least one surfaced runway 3,500 feet (1,050 meters) or more long, capable of safely accommodating the continuous operation of aircraft having a wheel load of 30,000 pounds (13,500 kilograms), or a gross weight of 60,000 pounds (27,000 kilograms).
(b) Facilities. Land airports of Classes A, B, and C shall have at least the following facilities, all as specified in the appropriate Annexes: drainage, either artificial or natural, day airport marking, land airport lighting, wind indicator, landing direction indicator, refueling, shop, hangar, storage facilities, meteorological facilities,
office space, two-way radio facilities, and airport traffic control facilities. International land airports shall also include facilities for immigration, customs, and quarantine. (c) Grading
(1) Transverse. The maximum transverse grades for runways on land airports shall be 1% percent.
(2) Longitudinal. The maximum uniform longitudinal grades for runways on land airports shall be 1 percent.
(3) Longitudinal Grade Changes. The maximum algebraic difference of the longitudinal grades at any point along a runway shall not exceed 1 percent. The transition from one grade to another grade shall be accomplished by a curved surface with a rate of change not exceeding 0.4 percent. Reverse grades should not be permitted except where this is impossible due to construction diffculties. (d) Clearing
(1) Obstructions Within the Airport Area. Objects on that part of the airport used or intended to be used for landing, take-off, or maneuvering of aircraft, that constitute a hazard to aircraft engaging in normal ground or air maneuvers shall be considered obstructions and shall be removed in so far as practicable. Those obstructions, either temporary or permanent, that are not removed shall be marked by suitable day markers and luminous markers, all as required hereinafter.
(2) Obstructions in the Vicinity of the Airport. Objects in the vicinity of the airport, rising above any obstruction marking surface * shall be considered obstructions and shall be removed in so far as practicable. Those obstructions, either temporary or permanent, that are not removed shall be marked by suitable day markers or painting, and luminous markers, all as required hereinafter.
(e) Minimum Landing Strip Width. The minimum width of the landing strip on all classes of land airports shall be 500 feet (150 meters). * Definition of Obstruction Marking Surfaces
(a) Horizontal Surface. An imaginary surface 150 feet (45 meters) above the nearest limit of the usable landing area and within 2 miles of that limit.
(b) Approach Surface. A section of an imaginary plane having a slope of 1:50 for Classes A and B land airports and 1:40 for Class C land airports, delimited by imaginary vertical planes bounding the approach area, all defined as follows:
(1) The approach area is an area on the ground extending from the end of the runway for a distance of 2 miles (3.2 kilometers) into the approachway, and symmetrical with respect to the extended center line of the runway, curved if necessary, because of terrain or operational conditions.
(2) For non-instrument runways the lateral dimensions of the approach area perpendicular to the extended center line of the landing strip, shall be taken as landing strip width at landing strip end and landing strip width plus 2,000 feet (600 meters) at approach end.
(3) For instument runways the lateral dimensions of the approach area perpendicular to the extended center line of the runway shall be 1,000 feet (300 meters) at runway end and 4,000 feet (1,200 meters) at approach end.
(c) Transitional Surfaces. The approach surface and the usable landing area surface shall be joined to the horizontal surface by transitional surfaces sloping upward from the approach surface and from the boundary of the usable landing area, except that part in common with the approach area. The slope of these transitional surfaces shall be 1:7.