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b. Color. Signs shall consist of characters having a color approximating chrome yellow placed on a black background or bordered with black unless the surrounding terrain is of a color tending to obscure such colors, in which case the colors shall be varied in a way that will increase their conspicuity.
c. Size of Characters. Markers on buildings and building roofs shall have characters not less than 10 feet (3 meters) high, all other markers shall have characters not less than 20 feet (6 meters) high
d. Latitude Differentiation Near Equator. All latitude designations within two degrees of the equator shall be preceded by the letter “N” or the letter “S”, whichever is correct.
e. Longitude Differentiation Near Zero Meridian. All longitude designations within five degrees of the meridian of Greenwich shall be preceded by the letter "E" or the letter “W”, whichever is correct.
(2) Runway Marking Signs. Surfaced runways and surfaced taxiways on landing areas shall be marked as hereinafter prescribed.
a. Designation of Runways. The surfaced runways of landing areas shall be designated by numbers assigned and by suffixed letters where required.
1. Assignment of Numbers. Each end of all runways shall be assigned a number. This number shall be the whole number nearest one tenth of the magnetic azimuth of the center line of the runway, measured clockwise from magnetic North, when viewed from the approach end.
2. Differentiation of Parallel Runways. Parallel runways shall be differentiated by the addition of a different letter or letters to the number for each of the contiguous ends. The letters to be suffixed to the number, for the respective runway ends, shall be as follows, in the order shown from left to right, viewing the ends from the approach direction: For two parallel runways—“L”, “R”. For three parallel runways-“L”, “C”, “R”. For four parallel runways—"L",''LC", "RC”, “R”.
L” b. Color of Markings. Day traffic markings will be displayed on airport surfaces by painting, or other means providing similar effect, as follows:
1. All markings on runways shall be of color other than chrome yellow, contrasting with the runway surface, except as provided for markings for use of aircraft while taxiing.
2. All markings on taxiways and on other surfaces when exclusively for use of aircraft while taxiing, shall be chrome yellow.
c. Size and Form of Characters. The numbers and letters of the ends of runways shall be applied to the respective ends in characters of the form and proportions and of the minimum size shown in Figure 1.
d. Runway Length Symbols. Length of runways may be indicated by symbols on the ends of runways. The symbols employed shall be as indicated for the length of runway shown below each symbol in Figure 2.
1. Arrangement of Runway End Markings. The markings on the ends of runways shall conform to the arrangement of Figure 3.
2. Runway 1,500-Foot Marker. Two symbols shall be placed on each runway to mark a distance of 1,500 feet (450 meters) from each end of the runway. The symbol employed shall conform to Figure 4.
e. Runway Center Line Indicators. Center lines of runways may be indicated by stripes. The stripes employed shall be continuous dual stripes 6 inches (15 centimeters) minimum width, spaced 6 inches (15 centimeters) apart, located 15 feet (4.5 meters) either side of the center line of the runway.
f. Taxiway Center Line Indicator. ' Center lines of taxiways may be indicated by a stripe. The stripe employed shall be a continuous stripe 6 inches (15 centimeters) wide coinciding with the center line.
g. Taxi Holding Post Markers. Taxi holding post markers may be painted on taxiways to indicate points at which aircraft on the ground may be detained in traffic control. The taxi holding post marker employed shall conform to Figure 5,
(b) Shapes. Shapes shall be employed to indicate wind direction, landing and take-off directions, and meteorological information. Shapes employed for different purposes shall be distinctive, one from another, but all shall be conspicuous and legible from a height of at least 1,000 feet (300 meters). Location of shapes used for the same purpose on or near landing areas shall be as uniform as is consistent with proper landing area design.
(1) Boundary Markers. Suitable markers shall be installed to delineate the boundary of the usable landing area to aircraft in the air and to aircraft on the ground.
(2) Circle Markers. A circle marker, clearly visible from the air, may be placed on the landing area to aid in identifying the landing
(3) Wind Direction Indicators. The direction of the wind at the landing area shall be clearly indicated to aircraft on the ground and in the air by a smoke signal or a free swinging wind direction indicator, of the cone, tee, or tetrahedral type.
(4) Landing Direction Indicators. At landing areas where traffic control is exercised, the desired direction of the landing or take-off shall be clearly indicated to aircraft on the ground and in the air by a landing direction indicator of distinctive appearance so constructed that it will become free swinging in winds in excess of a pre-determined velocity which shall be 20 miles (32 kilometers) per hour or less as operation of the landing area requires.
(c) Flags. Flags shall be of sufficient surface to be clearly visible and legible from a distance of at least 500 feet (150 meters) perpendicular to that surface. Flags marking hazards either temporary or permanent shall be international orange and shall be displayed on the top or along the highest edge of the obstruction. Horizontally extended obstructions shall be marked every 50 feet (15 meters).
8. Luminous Marking Devices. Luminous marking devices include incandescent lamps, gaseous discharge lamps, and gas operated lamps, together with the optics and auxiliary mechanisms to furnish thé characteristics stipulated.
(a) Dangerous Lights. No lights shall be exhibited at or in the neighborhood of a landing area which may endanger the safety of aircraft, whether by reason of glare, or by causing confusion with or preventing clear visual reception of lights or signals prescribed by this subsection.
(b) Beacons. The position of a landing area shall be indicated by a luminous beacon located on the landing area. The course of an airway may be indicated by luminous beacons.
(1) Airfields and Land Airports Open to Public Use. An airfield or land airport open to public use shall be indicated by a beacon showing aviation white and aviation green or by a beacon showing aviation white, together with an auxiliary light showing aviation green.
(2) Water Airports. A water airport shall be indicated by a beacon showing aviation white and aviation yellow or by a beacon
showing aviation white, together with an auxiliary light showing aviation yellow.
(3) Airway Beacon Sites
a. Location. Where required, airway beacons shall be located on airways between landing areas to indicate the course of the airway and to indicate geographical position. The beacon sites shall be spaced between landing areas at distances of approximately 15 miles (25 kilometers) and shall be located in so far as practicable, to coincide with the course of the airway.
b. Designation. The airway beacon sites shall be assigned numbers which are one tenth the distance in air line sea level miles from the nominal terminal of the airway route to the south or west expressed to the nearest whole number.
c. Airway Beacon. The airway beacon site shall be indicated by a beacon showing aviation white and aviation red, or by a beacon showing aviation white, together with an auxiliary light or lights showing aviation red along the course of the airway.
d. Luminous Identification of Airway Beacon Site. The airway. beacon site number may be indicated by a code acceptable to the international organization for air navigation applied to the auxiliary lights supplementing the airway beacon or may be
displayed by a luminous sign located at the airway beacon site. (c) Lighting of Obstructions. Obstructions on and in the vicinity of landing areas that have not been removed in accordance with the rules prescribed for clearing in the Section on landing areas and obstructions on the airways* shall be marked with aviation red lights placed as hereinafter prescribed.
(1) Vertical Spacing of Obstruction Lights
a. Top Light. A light, or lights, shall be placed at the top of all obstructions defined above unless (1) the top of the obstruction is less than 30 feet (9 meters) above the surrounding ground and (2) the obstruction, if located in an approach area, is more than one mile from the nearest limit of a usable landing area. In the case of the above-excepted obstructions a light or lights may be placed at the top of the obstruction. The top light shall be placed on the highest point or on the highest edge as applicable, unless the obstruction is a chimney or other structure of like function, in which case the obstruction lights shall be placed approximately 6 feet below the top.
b. Intermediate Lights. When the top of the obstruction is
* Definitions of Obstructions on the Airways. Objects on the airways, excluded from consideration in Section III hereof because of location in excess of 2 miles (3.2 kilometers) from the boundary of a usable landing area, shall be considered obstructions on the airway and shall be lighted with obstruction lights provided: (1) they are less than 10 miles (16 kilometers) from the center line of an airway, or the boundary of a usable landing area; and they project above a horizontal surface 200 feet (60 meters) above the elevation of the surrounding ground averaged over a 44-mile (400-meter) radius from the obstructions; or (2) they project above a 1:40 slope joining the horizontal obstruction marking surface defined in Section III herein, at its 2-mile (3.2-kilometer) limit with the 200-foot (60-meter) horizontal surface mentioned in (1) above. Isolated obstructions outside of the limits defined above shall be lighted if they constitute a hazard to aircraft in flight.
more than 150 feet (45 meters) above the level of the surrounding ground, an additional light will be added for each additional 150 feet (45 meters) or fraction thereof. Additional lights will be equally spaced between the top light and the ground level. Any such additional light position shielded in all directions by other objects shall have the shielded lights omitted.
(2) Horizontal Arrangement of Obstruction Lights. The arrangement and number of obstruction lights in the horizontal plane passing through the elevation to be marked shall be such that the obstruction is defined from every angle of azimuth.
(3) Horizontal Spacing of Obstruction Lights
a. Horizontally extended obstructions having a projected length parallel to the nearest edge of the landing area of 75 feet (23 meters) or less, above an obstruction marking surface as defined in the Section on landing areas, shall have the top marked at approximately the center of the point or edge highest above the obstruction marking surface. If more than one edge is of equal height above the obstruction marking surface, the edge nearest the landing area shall be selected for marking.
b. Horizontally extended obstructions having a projected length parallel to the nearest edge of the landing area of more than 75 feet (23 meters), or an actual length of more than 300 feet (90 meters) above an obstruction marking surface as defined in the Section on landing areas shall have the top marked at each end of the length on the edge highest above the obstruction marking surface and, in addition, shall have an obstruction light placed at the highest point above the obstruction marking surface between the end lights if any such intermediate point of greater height exists. If more than one edge is of equal height above the obstruction marking surface, the edge nearest the landing area shall be selected for marking. An additional obstruction light shall be added for each 150 feet (45 meters), or fraction thereof, the projected length exceeds 150 feet (45 meters), or for each 300 feet (90 meters), or fraction thereol, the actual length exceeds 300 feet (90 meters), whichever results in the greatest number of lights. Such additional obstruction lights shall be spaced approximately at equal intervals between end lights positioned as above.
c. Intermediate lights required by the Paragraph on vertical spacing above shall be installed to comply with the horizontal arrangement required by the Paragraph on horizontal spacing above, and shall be, in so far as practicable, in the plane perpendicular to the nearest edge of the usable landing area that passes
through the corresponding top light. (d) Lighting of Wind Direction Indicator. At least one wind direction indicator shall be lighted or illuminated at each landing area.
(C) Lighting of Landing Direction Indicator. The landing direction indicator shall be lighted or illuminated.
(f) Outlining the Landing Strip. The landing strips or runways, but not both, of landing areas shall be delineated by parallel rows of fixed lights placed in pairs on perpendiculars to the center line of the landing strip, unless the entire usable area is delineated by boundary