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(b) Proceed in weather conditions better than those requiring the observance of Instrument Flight Rules; or

(c) Land as soon as practicable.

17. Cruising Altitudes. Unless different altitudes are assigned by a center or tower, the following cruising altitudes shall be observed:

(a) Aircraft making good a true course of from 0° (or 360°) to, but not including, 180° shall fly at odd thousand plus 500 foot levels above sea level (such as 3,500).

(b) Aircraft making good a true course of from 180° to, but not including, 360° (or 0°) shall fly at even thousand plus 500 foot levels above sea level (such as 2,500).

18. Right-Side Traffic. Aircraft operating along a designated airway shall be flown to the right of the center line of such airway, unless otherwise advised or authorized by a center or tower.

19. Notification of Arrival. A person in command of an aircraft making a flight for which a flight plan is required by these rules shall be responsible for insuring that an arrival message is filed immediately upon landing for transmission to the appropriate agency.

ANNEX D

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL PRACTICES

INTRODUCTORY SECTION The Air Traffic Control Practices shall be uniformly applied in all contracting States, except in the case of aircraft of the armed forces of a State where appropriate military authority determines that noncompliance with these Rules is required. These procedures provide standards governing the fundamentals of operation of air traffic control facilities. If it is found that temporary deviations from those standards are necessary in the interests of efficient and safe control, such deviations may be made.

These practices apply primarily to ground personnel and provide standards for the establishment internationally of uniform air traffic control service wherever air traffic is of such proportions as to require this service. Need for air traffic control service in a given area or at a given location is a matter left for the determination of contracting States or an international organization for air navigation.

It will be necessary for States, individually or collectively, to issue supplemental operating procedures based on these practices. Such operating procedures should contain specific instructions as to the control of air traffic in prescribed areas, based on considerations pertinent to such areas.

SECTION I

Definitions (a) Acrobatic Flight. Maneuvers intentionally performed by aircraft involving an abrupt change in its attitude, an abnormal attitude, or an abnormal speed.

(b) Airport Control Sector. The area within which air traffic is subject to the supervision of an airport traffic control tower.

(c) Airport Traffic. Aircraft operating within an airport traffic zone and vehicular traffic operating on an airport.

(d) Airport Traffic Control Tower. A facility established to provide adequate supervision of air traffic within an airport control sector. (e) Airport

. An established landing area either on land or water which is used or intended to be used for the landing and take-off of aircraft.

(f) Airport Traffic Zone. The usable surface of an airport and the airspace over an area having a radius of at least five miles from the center of the airport.

(g) Air Traffic. Aircraft in motion anywhere in the airspace and aircraft on the usable surface of an airport.

(h) Air Traffic Control Center. A facility established to provide adequate supervision of air traffic within a specified control area.

(i) Air Traffic Clearance. Approval of a flight or portion thereof by an air traffic control center or airport traffic control tower.

(j) Air Traffic Control Officer. A person responsible for providing air traffic control service.

(k) Airway. A path through the airspace, identified by an area on the surface of the earth, designated by the appropriate authority for air navigation.

(1) Airway Traffic. Aircraft operating within an airway. (m) Alternate Airport. An airport specified in the flight plan to which a flight may proceed when a landing at the intended destination becomes inadvisable.

(n) Approach Time. The time at which an aircraft commences an approach procedure preparatory to a landing.

Center. See Air Traffic Control Center. (p) Control Area. A specified area within which an air traffic control center provides for adequate supervision of air traffic.

(q) Cruising Altitude. A constant altimeter indication maintained during a flight or portion thereof.

(r) Flight Plan. A plan containing specified information relative to a flight of an aircraft.

(s) Flight Watch. The continuous maintenance of the coordinated services performed by the air traffic control officer, the forecaster, and the operations officer for the protection of an aircraft during flight.

(t) General Flight Rules. Rules specified in Annex C, "Rules of the Air”, governing all flights made in airspace under the supervision of the contracting States.

(u) General Flight Rule Flight. Flight made under conditions not requiring the observance of the Instrument Flight Rules.

(v) Instrument Flight Plan. A plan of flight containing the items specified in the Instrument Flight Rules of Annex C, “Rules of the Air”, indicating that the person in command of an aircraft_intends to conduct the flight in accordance with Instrument Flight Rules.

(w) Instrument Flight Rules. Rules, specified in Annex C, "Rules of the Air”, which, in addition to the General Flight Rules, govern flight under certain conditions.

(x) Operations Officer. The ground representative designated by an agency operating an aircraft.

(y) Reporting Point. A geographical location above which the position of an aircraft is determined.

(z) Runway. A specially prepared or marked path on an airport to be used for take-offs or landings of aircraft under certain wind conditions.

(aa) Separation. A specified longitudinal, vertical, or lateral separation between two or more aircraft in flight.

(bb) Take-Off Clearance. Permission by an airport control tower for an aircraft to take off.

(cc) Tower. See Airport Traffic Control Tower.

(dd) Usable Surface of an Airport. That area which comprises landing, take-off, and maneuvering areas.

SECTION II

Rules for the Establishment of Air Traffic Control Service 1. Objective. The primary objective of the air traffic control service shall be to provide for the safe and expeditious movement of air traffic. This shall include:

(a) Preventing collisions between aircraft being operated in the air and on the airport, and between aircraft and other obstacles on airports.

(b) Preventing unnecessary delay in the flow of air traffic.

(c) Assisting the person in command of an aircraft by providing such advice and information as may be useful for the safe and efficient conduct of a flight.

(d) Notifying appropriate rescue service regarding aircraft known to be or believed to be in need of rescue service, and assisting such service as required.

2. General

(a) Operation. The air traffic control service shall be under the supervision of the State in whose territory the area being controlled is situated, unless other arrangements for this purpose have been made with another contracting State.

(b) Traffic Clearances. Traffic clearances and control instructions issued by the air traffic control service shall be based solely on the requirements for providing safe and adequate separation of air traffic and maintaining expeditious flow of air traffic.

3. Types of Services

(a) Airport Traffic Control. Airport traffic control shall be administered by a tower which shall control air traffic operating within a specified airport control sector or airport traffic zone.

(1) Airport traffic control may operate within the boundaries of a control area, or where ro area traffic control is established.

(2) Where an airport control sector is located within a control area, the tower shall be governed by instructions received from the center for such area with regard to coordination between traffic within the airport control sector and traffic operating outside the airport control sector.

(b) Area Traffic Control Area traffic control shall be administered by a center which shall control air traffic operating within a specified control area.

(c) Flight Advisory Service. Flight advisory service shall be provided by centers and towers to assist persons in command of aircraft by supplying helpful information and advice.

4. Designation of Control Areas. The boundaries of control areas shall be designated by the State in whose territory those areas are situated. In the case of adjacent States, the control area boundaries may be other than national boundaries by mutual consent of the States involved. By mutual agreement between the contracting States affected, control areas may be extended beyond their territories. In the event of disagreement between States, the matter

shall be referred to the appropriate organ of the international organization for air navigation.

5. Designation of Airport Control Sectors. The boundaries of airport control sectors shall be designated by the State in whose territories those sectors are situated and in no event shall the size be less than the airport traffic zone. An altitude may be specified as the vertical limit of an airport control sector.

6. Allocation of Responsibility

(a) General Flight Rules. The only separation which shall be applied to aircraft operating solely under the General Flight Rules will be that effected by a tower while such aircraft constitute airport traffic.

(b) Instrument Flight Rules. The responsibility for the separation of air traffic operating under the Instrument Flight Rules shall be divided between towers and centers as follows, if the air traffic is operating within a control area:

(1) A center shall retain control and provide separation between aircraft inbound to an airport until such aircraft have established communication with the tower, after having reached the boundary of the airport control sector. The tower shall then be responsible for providing adequate separation between aircraft operating within the airport control sector or airport traffic zone.

(2) After departure approval has been received from the center concerned, the tower shall be responsible for providing such separation as is necessary between outbound aircraft and all other aircraft within the airport control sector prior to transferring responsibility to the center.

7. Air Traffic Control Information

(a) Scope. Each State shall disseminate such information to airmen as is necessary for the proper functioning of the air traffic control service. This shall include advice regarding

(1) Radio facilities.
(2) Navigation aids.
(3) Airports.
(4) Instrument approach procedures.

(5) Air traffic procedures and rules. (b) Publication. Air traffic control information shall be supplied in accordance with standards prescribed by the appropriate organ of the international organization for air navigation.

SECTION III Standards for the Control of General Flight Rules Traffic 8. Application

(a) General. These standards govern the control of aircraft operating solely in accordance with the General Flight Rules. Normally such control shall be exercised by towers while aircraft are airport traffic. Additional standards governing the control of airport traffic operating in accordance with Instrument Flight Rules will be found in Section IV of this Annex.

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