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17. Separation Standards. Centers and towers shall provide separation between aircraft in accordance with minima established by each State, based on navigation aids in use and other pertinent factors. The types of separation provided shall be as follows:
(a) Longitudinal Separation. The longitudinal spacing of aircraft at the same altitude by a minimum distance, expressed in units of time so that after one aircraft passes over a reporting point, the next succeeding aircraft at the same altitude will not arrive over the same reporting point within less than the minimum number of minutes.
(b) Lateral Separation. The spacing of aircraft horizontally by requiring the aircraft concerned to operate on different routes or in different geographical locations, as determined by visual observation or by use of radio navigational aids.
(c) Vertical Separation. The spacing of aircraft vertically by assigning different flight levels whenever the aircraft concerned would otherwise be operating with less than the minimum longitudinal or lateral separation.
18. Control of Arriving and Departing Aircraft. Centers and towers shall control arriving and departing aircraft under their respective supervision in accordance with the following procedures:
(a) Approach Sequence. When vertical separation is required between aircraft arriving at point of intended landing, the sequence in which such aircraft will be permitted to execute approach for a landing shall be established by the center or tower. Normally, such sequence shall be determined by the estimated time of arrival of each aircraft over point of intended landing.
(b) Approach Time. The time at which it is expected that each aircraft in an approach sequence will be able to commence approach for a landing shall be forwarded to the aircraft prior to arrival of the aircraft in the approach sequence.
(c) Types of Approach. When necessary to expedite the flow of air traffic, the type of approach for a landing which should be executed shall be specified by the center or tower in accordance with the following:
(1) An instrument approach when conditions require full use of navigational aids.
(2) A contact approach when conditions permit the aircraft to be flown directly to the airport by visual reference to the ground or water.
(3) A general flight rule approach when conditions permit the aircraft to be flown below clouds and with visibility better than those minima requiring the observance of Instrument Flight Rules.
(d) Departure Instructions. In controlling departing aircraft so as to provide proper separation from other aircraft, specific instructions shall be issued by the center or tower with regard to one or more of the following:
(1) Direction of take-off and/or turn after take-off.
(2) Altitude and course to maintain before starting climb to desired altitude.
(3) Time or point at which altitude change shall be made.
19. Emergency Procedures
(a) General. Upon receipt of advice or development of and indication that an aircraft has or may have encountered an emergency, the center or tower concerned shall take action to place in operation rescue procedures, and shall make full use of available facilities in rendering any possible assistance.
(b) Emergency Descents. Upon receipt of advice that an aircraft is making an emergency descent through other traffic, the center or tower concerned shall immediately take necessary steps in preventing conflict between the emergency aircraft and any other aircraft.
(c) Two-Way Radio Failure. In the event of failure of two-way radio communications between aircraft and ground, the center or tower may broadcast instructions over the appropriate radio facilities. If the person in command of the aircraft receives such broadcast he will be expected to follow the instructions contained therein. If he does not receive such broadcast, he will be expected to follow the flight plan, including any amendments thereto, and to observe instructions contained in the last traffic clearance for which acknowledgment was made.
(d) Unreported Aircraft. Every effort shall be made to determine the whereabouts of unreported aircraft. The center or tower concerned shall restrict other aircraft operations in such manner as is considered appropriate to prevent possibility of collision between the unreported aircraft and other known aircraft.
Flight Advisory Service 20. Application. The purpose of flight advisory service is to render assistance to the person in command of an aircraft. Flight advisory service shall be provided by centers and towers to those aircraft for which a flight plan has been received, or for which such service is requested, and which are not represented by an operations officer.
21. Flight Advisory Information. Flight advisory information shall include the following:
(a) Weather conditions reported or forecast to be at or below the established safe minima for landing at destination.
(b) Icing conditions along the route of flight.
c) Thunderstorms, tornadoes, line squalls, and other severe turbulent conditions.
(d) Information pertaining to navigation facilities and airports.
(e) Information on other known aircraft operating outside control areas or zones which might conflict with the aircraft being advised.
STANDARDS GOVERNING THE LICENSING OF OPERATING
AND MECHANICAL PERSONNEL
STUDENT, PRIVATE, AND COMMERCIAL PILOT CERTIFICATES
Section 1. General 1. Certificates. A pilot certificate entitling the holder to pilot powered aircraft other than scheduled air carrier or lighter-than-air aircraft shall be issued to a responsible applicant who meets the minimum requirements prescribed herein for any one of the following classes:
(a) Student pilot
2. Ratings. Each pilot shall be rated for the type of aircraft, the airplane class, and horsepower he has been found competent to pilot under the terms of his certificate, and shall bave special ratings so stating if he has been found competent to instruct students or to pilot aircraft under instrument conditions.
Section II. Student Pilot 3. Age. Minimum age, 16 years. 4. Physical Standards
(a) Applicant for a student pilot certificate shall meet the physical standards to be decided later.
5. Aeronautical Knowledge. No requirement except that:
(a) Before his first solo flight a student pilot shall demonstrate to a rated instructor that he has an adequate knowledge of the rules of the air and local control procedures.
(b) Before his first cross-country solo flight he shall pass an examination on the pertinent air regulations dealing with contact flight, on safety practices and procedures, and shall have demonstrated his ability to interpret aeronautical charts.
6. Aeronautical Experience. No student pilot shall make either his first solo flight or his first solo cross-country flight until found competent for such flight by a rated instructor and until the instructor has so endorsed his certificate.
7. Duration. A student pilot certificate shall be of 12 months' duration unless suspended, revoked, or otherwise terminated by a competent authority, or a higher class of certificate is issued.
Section III. Private Pilot 8. Age. Minimum age, 17 years.
9. Physical Standards. Applicant for a rating shall meet physical standards to be decided later.
10. Aeronautical Knowledge. Applicant shall be familiar with and accomplish satisfactorily a written examination covering: Such of the provisions of air regulations and the air traffic rules as are pertinent to the certificate and rating sought; prevailing weather conditions in the country issuing his pilot's certificate, as encountered in flying; sufficient knowledge of meteorology as to enable him to understand weather reports and forecasts; practical air navigation problems and the use of maps; navigation by terrain and the use of aids to navigation in visual contact flying; and the general servicing and operation of aircraft.
1.1. Aeronautical Experience. Applicant shall have completed a minimum of dual and solo flying of not less than a combined total of 40 hours' flying, except that in the case of unorthodox classes of aircraft this requirement may be modified in accordance with the greater or lesser ree of skill and experience which may be considered by the certificating authority as necessary in such cases. As part of this flying time, the applicant shall have completed at least 5 hours' solo cross-country flying of such a nature as to satisfy the certificating authorities.
12. Aeronautical Skill. Applicant shall demonstrate his ability safely and competently to carry out all normal maneuvers with the category of aircraft for which he is applying for a rating, and, where applicable, to recover from stalls and spins. In the case of light training aircraft capable
of being stalled and spun the following maneuvers will be performed (Required maneuvers for other categories of aircraft should also be based generally on the following requirements.):
(a) A series of three landings from an altitude not to exceed 1,000 feet (300 meters) with engine throttled, and a 180-degree change in direction, the aircraft touching the ground in normal landing attitude within 300 feet (100 meters) beyond a designated mark. At least one landing shall be accomplished from a forward slip;
(b) Three moderately banked figure eights either "on pylon” or around pylon”, variation in altitude not to exceed 200 feet (60 meters);
(c) A 720-degree power turn in each direction in a banked attitude of not less than 60 degrees, variation in altitude not to exceed 200 feet (60 meters);
(d) A right- and left-hand spin, each of at least one full turn; (e) Recovery from stalls.
Section IV. Commercial Pilot 13. Age. Applicant shall be at least 18 years of age.
14. Physical Standards. Applicant for a rating shall meet the physical standards to be decided later.
15. Aeronautical Knowledge. Applicant for a powered aircraft rating shall pass a written examination covering: Such of the provisions of air regulations and air traffic rules as are pertinent to his certificate; meteorology as applied to the recognition of weather conditions while flying; the analyzing of weather maps and sequence reports; practical
air navigation problems including the use of maps; navigation by terrain, by dead reckoning, and the use of navigational instruments and aids in visual contact flight; the theory and practice of flight; an adequate knowledge of aircraft equipment and installations and of maintenance procedures of aircraft and aircraft power units.
16. Aeronautical Experience. Applicant shall have logged at least 200 hours of solo flying time, except that in the case of a graduate of a flying school approved by the country to which he is applying for the issuance of a certificate, this may be reduced to 150 hours. As a part of the foregoing requirement the applicant shall have logged at least 20 hours of solo cross-country flying, including at least one flight of not less than 300 miles (480 kilometers) with three full stop landings at different points along the course.
17. Aeronautical Skill. An applicant shall demonstrate, in flight, a thorough familiarity with the flight characteristics of aircraft in the category for which he is applying for a rating. He shall safely and competently perform the following maneuvers (where he is applying for a rating in a non-spinnable and/or non-stallable category he shall demonstrate his ability to enter into and recover from stalls and spins on another suitable aircraft; except that this requirement shall not apply in the case of applicants for autogiro and helicopter ratings. Where, in other respects the following requirements are inappropriate to particular categories, they should be modified, added to, or eliminated in order to provide tests designed to demonstrate a comparable degree of skill.):
(a) A series of three landings from an altitude not to exceed 1,000 feet (300 meters) with engine throttled and a 180-degree change in direction, the aircraft touching the ground in normal landing attitude within 200 feet (60 meters) beyond a designated mark;
(b) A spiral in each direction of not less than three full turns in a banked attitude of not less than 60 degrees, with engine throttled;
(c) Three shallow figure eights either "on pylon" or "around pylon”, three steep figure eights either "on pylon" or "around pylon”, and one 720-degree power turn in each direction in a banked attitude of at least 60 degrees. During each of these maneuvers the total variation in altitude shall not exceed 100 feet (30 meters);
(d) A two-turn spin in each direction with a recovery error of not more than plus or minus 10 degrees;
(e) Coordination exercises, straight climbs, climbing turns, slips, and emergency maneuvers such as simulated forced landings and recovery from stalls entered from both level and steeply banked atti
(f) A demonstration of knowledge of the best climb and gliding conditions and the proper handling of the power plant and all auxiliary controls.
Section V. Type, Class, and Horsepower Rating 18. Aircraft Rating Competence. An applicant for additional aircraft ratings, subsequent to the original issuance of a pilot certificate and ratings, 'shall demonstrate skill appropriate to the requirements of his certificate in the type and class of aircraft for which the rating is sought. In the case of an applicant who holds ratings only on