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unorthodox aircraft, appropriate limitations shall be entered in the rating record.
19. Aircraft Type Rating. The types of aircraft for which ratings may be issued are as follows:
20. Airplane Class Rating. The class of airplanes for which ratings may be issued are as follows:
(a) Single engine land
21. Airplane Horsepower Rating. The range of horsepower of airplanes which will be included in the rating issued is as follows:
(a) 100 or less horsepower, if competence has been demonstrated in airplanes certificated for a maximum of 100 or less horsepower;
(b) Except where paragraph (a) hereof is applicable, a range of horsepower extending from 50 percent less than to 50 percent greater than the total maximum horsepower for which the airplane in which competency was demonstrated is certificated.
Section VI. Instrument Rating
22. Knowledge. Applicant shall pass a written examination demonstrating his familiarity with: The use of such instruments and other navigational aids, both in the aircraft and on the ground, as are necessary for the navigation of aircraft solely by reference to instruments; the pertinent provisions of air traffic rules; meteorology as applied to instrument flying; practical air navigation problems including the use of maps, navigation by dead reckoning and radio, and the use of instruments and navigational aids.
23. Experience. Applicant may be a commercial or private pilot, but in the latter case shall meet the experience requirements for a commercial pilot. In addition, he shall have logged at least 40 hours of instrument flight under actual or simulated instrument flight conditions, not less than 20 hours of which shall have been in actual flight.
24. Aeronautical Skill. Applicant shall demonstrate his ability to perform competently the following maneuvers solely by reference to instruments:
(a) Straight and level flight.
(b) Moderately banked 180-degree and 360-degree turns in both directions.
(c) Powered flight at minimum safe speed, minimum glides, maximum climbs and approaches to stalled attitudes of flight.
(d) Climbing turns.
(e) Stalls, skids, slips, spirals, and banks in excess of 45 degrees, and recovery from unusual positions or attitudes of flight.
() Demonstration, while in flight or under simulated flight conditions, of estimating arrival time, taking into account speed, wind, and drift.
25. Radio Skill. Applicant shall demonstrate his competence while flying under instrument conditions with respect to the following items:
(a) Tuning radio.
(d) Locating cone of silence or airport if other than radio range is used.
(e) Let-down approved instrument approach procedure for the particular airport.
Section VII. Flight Instructor Rating 26. Knowledge. Applicant shall have a practical and theoretical knowledge of methods and procedures necessary for proper flight instruction.
27. Experience. Applicant must meet the experience requirements for a commercial pilot.
28. Skill. Applicant shall pass a practical test demonstrating his ability to teach such fundamental flight maneuvers as are necessary and appropriate for instruction in the safe piloting of aircraft.
Section VIII. Privileges and Limitations 29. General. No person shall pilot an aircraft in solo flight without being possessed of a pilot certificate appropriate to the purpose of the flight.
30. Operation During Physical Deficiency. A certificated pilot shall not serve as pilot on any aircraft during the period of any known physical deficiency or increase in physical deficiency which would render him, during that period, unable to meet the physical requirements prescribed for the issuance of his currently effective medical certificate.
(a) A student pilot may pilot an aircraft solo only under the supervision of a rated instructor and within the territorial limits of the country issuing his student pilot certificate. He shall not pilot aircraft carrying passengers.
(b) A private pilot may pilot, not for hire, any aircraft within the type and class for which he is rated.
(c) A commercial pilot may pilot for hire any aircraft within the type and class for which he is rated.
(d) No private or commercial pilot shall fly under instrument conditions without being possessed of a current instrument rating.
(e) No private or commercial pilot shall make a flight carrying passengers during the period from one hour after sunset to one hour before sunrise unless he has made and logged at least five take-offs and five landings to a full stop during such period within the preceding three calendar months.
AIRLINE TRANSPORT PILOT CERTIFICATES
Section 1. General
1. Certificates. An airline transport pilot certificate shall be issued to any person who demonstrates compliance with the minimum requirements prescribed below.
2. Classes. Airline transport pilots shall be classed, according to the applicant's qualifications, as:
Airline Transport Pilot, Third Class;
3. Ratings. Ratings shall be issued in connection with any airline transport pilot certificate prescribing the type, class, and horsepower of aircraft which the holder has demonstrated competence to pilot in accordance with Section V of Chapter I.
Sectron II. Minimum Requirements 4. Age. Applicant shall be at least: 18 years of age for the Third Class certificate; 21 years of age for the Second Class certificate; and 23 years of age for the First Class certificate.
5. Physical Requirements. An applicant for an airline transport pilot certificate of any class shall meet physical standards to be decided later.
6. Aeronautical Knowledge. Applicant for an airline transport pilot certificate of any class shall pass an examination on the following subjects:
(a) Such provisions of the rules and regulations governing civil aviation as are pertinent to the operation of air carrier aircraft;
(b) The fundamentals of air navigation, including the use of formulae, instruments, and other navigational aids, both in aircraft and on the ground, which are deemed necessary for the navigation of aircraft by instruments;
(c) The general system of weather collection and dissemination;
d) Weather map, weather forecast, and weather sequence abbreviations, symbols, and nomenclature;
(e) Elementary meteorology, including modern knowledge of the cyclone as associated with fronts;
(f) Cloud forms;
(g) All government weather bureau circulars and instructions for airway meteorological service as are pertinent to the operation of air carrier aircraft;
(h) Weather conditions, including icing conditions and upper-air winds affecting aeronautical activities;
(i) All air navigation facilities and procedures currently in use, such as rotating beacons, course lights, radio ranges, and radio marker beacons;
(j) The estimating of arrival time, taking into account speed, and wind direction and velocity; and
(k) Radio communication procedures as applied to scheduled air carrier operation.
7. Aeronautical Experience. Applicant for an airline transport pilot certificate shall have had at least the following aeronautical experi
8. Aeronautical Skill
(a) Third Class. Applicant shall hold a commercial pilot certificate and instrument rating or shall satisfactorily accomplish the flight tests prescribed in Chapter I.
(b) Second Class. Applicant shall demonstrate his ability to pilot aircraft satisfactorily in all maneuvers used in normal flight and in addition thereto the following:
(1) Emergency maneuvers which may include simulated forced landings and recovery from stalls entered from both level and steeply banked attitudes.
(2) Operation of multiengine aircraft at authorized maximum weight with one engine inoperative if rating is sought on such aircraft;
(3) Solely by reference to instruments, all normal flight maneuvers, stalls, spirals, and at least a 720-degree turn in a banked attitude of at least 45 degrees;
(4) Solely by reference to instruments, operation of multiengine aircraft at authorized maximum weight with one engine inoperative if rating is sought on such aircraft;
(5) Interpretation of International Morse Code radio signals; and while piloting aircraft in a hooded cockpit, the working of orientation problems and acceptable approach procedures, et cetera by the use of radio; and
(6) Any maneuver provided for in this Section may be modified or eliminated by the examining inspector if such action is appropriate to the characteristics of the aircraft used in the test and appropriate operation limitations are entered on the certificate.
(c) First Class. Applicant shall have satisfactorily accomplished the flight tests prescribed in item (b) in a multiengine aircraft.
Section III. Privileges and Limitations 9. General. An airline transport pilot when serving as such shall have in his possession his airline transport pilot certificate.
10. Operation During Physical Deficiency. An airline transport pilot shall not pilot any aircraft during the period of any known physical deficiency or increase in physical deficiency which would render him during that period unable to meet the physical requirements prescribed for the issuance of his currently effective medical certificate.
11. Privileges. An airline transport pilot of any class may exercise all of the privileges of a private or commercial pilot with an instrument rating and in accordance with the aircraft ratings held.
12. Service Limitations. An airline transport pilot may serve in scheduled air transportation as indicated in the following table: